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Theory and Item Response Theory (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Sirotnik, 1987). Researchers have found that Classical Test Theory lacks the complexity to discern . between examinees' ability levels on a specific item. Therefore, if the ...

Reliability and Validity 8 mind the intended use of your instrument when considering these circumstances and deciding how to use an instrument (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Mehrens & Lehman, 1991; Gregory, 1992).

302 Babbie (1990) Kerlinger (**1986**) **Crocker** & **Algina** (**1986**) Index Summated Rating Scale Subject-centered [Scaling] Method Thurstone Scales Thurstone Equal-Interval Stimulus-centered [Scaling] Methods

The third type of reliability is estimated by internal consistency methods (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). The internal consistency of a test is the degree to which all of the items in the test are measures of the same characteristic or attribute or combination of characteristics or

**Crocker** and **Algina** (**1986**) provide a series of steps to follow when pursuing a construct validation study: 1) generate hypotheses of how the construct should relate to both other constructs of interest

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Ebel, R.L., & Frisbie, D.A. (**1986**). Essentials of educational measurement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Gronlund, N.E., & Linn, R.L.

Thus, **Crocker** and **Algina** (**1986**) say, "Test developers have a responsibility of demonstrating the reliability of scores from their tests" (p. 106). Although the researcher may be able to prove the research instrument repeatability and

**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Goodenough, 1949; Gronlund, 1988; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994; Payne, 1975; Suen, 1990), is also represented by Traub (1994) who noted that “the usual reliability experiments provide a sample

**Crocker** and **Algina** (**1986**, p. 441) noted that the nonlinear conversion implicit in conversion to percentile ranks can cause people to misinterpret these scores: Most misinterpretations arise when test users fail to recognize that

(**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). Intra-rater reliability concerns the consistency of one rater for the same test performance at different times (Jones, 1979). Both inter- and intra-rater reliability deserve close attention in that test scores are likely to vary from rater to rater or even from the

in the test (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). In this study coefficient alpha, p-values and r pbis are used from the CTT. 4 Method: Item response theory There are a number of different IRT models. In this study, the three

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. Cronbach, L. J. (1990).

**Crocker**, L. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: CBS College Publishing. Edwards, M. C. & Vevea, J. L. (in press). An empirical Bayes approach to subscore augmentation: How much strength can we borrow?

Statistical Foundations **Crocker**, L. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Test scores as composites. In Introduction to classical and modern test theory (pp. 87-104).

Tentative Schedule Date Topic Readings Sept 26 Classical Test Theory Wainer & Thissen, 2001 **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**, Ch.6 Oct 3 IRT Overview & Background Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, 1991, Ch.1

(e.g., Cronbach, 1971; **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). A Modified View of Reliability (Moss, 1994) • There can be validity without reliability. • Reliability is a aspect of construct validity. • Assessment is becoming less standardized.

Designed 100 years ago (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**), classical approaches to assessing test quality are unsuited to the contemporary context of technology-based learning (Messick, 1988). We will discuss evolving conceptions of

**Crocker**, L. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Orlando FL: Harcourt Brace. Required Readings . Betz, N. E., & Weiss, D. J. (2008). Validity. In B. F. Bolton & R. M. Parker, Handbook of measurement and

Fiske, 1959; **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). In addition, we note that the procedure in this article is equally applicable with missing data, under the assumption of multinormality and missing at random, using the full information maximum likelihood method (e.g.,

samples, and an extensive collection of validity evidence must be gathered (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Gregory, 1992; Messick, 1995). Assessing Construct Validity Benson (1998) described three necessary components to developing a strong case for

intention of criterion-referenced tests to select items that would maximize variance (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**) among the examinees; all students are required to have a minimum level of understanding the principles ...

Section II: Classical Test Theory **Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction t9 classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Ferrara, S. F. (1987). Effects of essay order on raters' score assignments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ...

1979; **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Lord & Novick, 1968). The different-time/same-item covariances are sensitive to these inflationary effects and intuitively might be eliminated from the test–retest correlation to correct for this bias.

Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). Internal Consistency Estimates Test reliability is an indication of the consistency of the assessment. TAKS, SDAA II, RPTE, and

**Crocker**, L. M. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. †EL Cudek, R. (1988). Multiplicative models and MTMM matrices. Journal of Educational Statistics, 13, 131-147. †ACWS

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**), Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Diamond, J., & Evans, W. (1973). The correction for guessing. Review of Educational Research 43, 181-191. New Corrections for Guessing 28 .

**Crocker**, L. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Cross, K. P. (1981). Adults as learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Haladyna, T. M. (1997). Writing test items to evaluate higher order thinking.

See **Crocker** and **Algina**’s Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory (**1986**) for a discussion of the state of psychometrics. ... **Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**), Introduction to classical & modern test theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. NY: CBS college publishing. Fan, X. (1998). Item response theory and classical test theory: an empirical comparison of their item/person statistics.

**Crocker**, Linda., & James, **Algina**. (**1986**). Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. USA : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc Disc Profile. (2007). Retrieved from www.discprofile.com .9 Februari 2008 Disc Profile System.(2003). USA : Inscape Publishing Inc.

(**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Shavelson & Webb, 1991). 4. Assumptions of GT The assumptions underlying GT are basically the same assumptions of CTT. First, the data examined in a generalizabilty analysis should be interval or ordinal in nature.

inter-rater reliability is to compute Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is a measure of internal consistency and is useful for understanding the extent to which the ratings from a group

consistency (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). In addition, important demographic variables that make a sample of participants more or less heterogeneous than the validation sample may also predict score reliability, including participant age, generational status, gender, ethnic-

below a particular raw score (**Crocker** and **Algina**, **1986**; Cronbach, 1984; Educational Test-ing Service, 2002). Percentile ranks help individuals to interpret their test scores in compar-ison to others. The reference group is often referred to as the norm group or the

**Crocker**, L. & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York, NY: Holt Rinehart & Winston Publications. DiStefano, C., Monrad, D. M., May, R.J., McGuiness, P., & Dickenson, T. (2007, April).

Item response theory and classical test theory: an empirical comparison of their item/person statistics. monotonically related under certain conditions (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Lord, 1980).

test (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Li, Rosenthal, & Ruben, 1996). The composite score internal consistency reliability coefficients were calculated with the formula recommended by Guilford (1954) and Nunnally and Bernstein (1994).

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Cronbach, L. J., Gleser, G. C., Nanda, H., & Rajaratnam, N. (1972). The dependability of mea-surements. New York: John Wiley.

to Classical and Modern Test Theory (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). Internal Consistency Estimates Test reliability is an indication of the consistency of the assessment. TAKS, TAKS–M, TELPAS reading (paper and online), EOC, and TAAS reliability data are based on internal

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Drasgow, F. (1987). Study of The Measurement Bias of Two Standardized Tests. Englehard, G., Jr. (1990, April).

Midterm Study Guide | PSY 444 | Spring, 2009 The midterm exam will be an in-class, closed book exam on Thursday, March 5th. The exam will cover material presented in class and in **Crocker** and **Algina** (**1986**).

**Crocker**, L., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefﬁ cient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. Dimitrov, D.M. (2002).

plied psychometric standards (e.g., **Crocker** and **Algina** **1986**; Gable and Wolf 1993; Mueller **1986**; Worthen, Borg, and White 1993). The instru-ment development reported in this study employed the following proce-

(**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**) Observations versus Inferences • Awareness of what is actually observable versus what is inferred • How to come to agree on what to call them

REFERENCES **Crocker**, L. M., & **Algina**, J. (**1986**). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Druks, J. (2002).

(AERA/APA/NCME, 1999; **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Dillman, 2000; White, Carey, and Dailey (2001) Development

(**Crocker**&**Algina**,**1986**).Thethirdassumptionhastodowiththeassumedshapeof theitemcharacteristiccurve,orasithasbeenmorerecentlycalled,theitemresponse function(IRF).Thisassumptioninvolvestheparticularmathematicalformoftheitem characteristiccurve(Weiss&Yoes,1988).MostofthecurrentIRTmodelsarebasedon

ity; **Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**). In this case, we assessed validity by comparing measures of writing quality ob-tained with the rubric to judgments of writing quality madebyanindependentevaluatorwhohasexperience in teaching and grading student writing but who did

imally similar (**Crocker** & **Algina**, **1986**; Cron-bach, 1984; Guilford, 1954). The tradition within M-CBM has been to devise multiple alternate forms from content that is randomly selected and arranged. Such procedures do not result in alternate forms that meet parallel-