Crocker Algina 1986 PDF
L. Crocker and J. Algina New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986. Jeffrey K. Smith Rutgers University In Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory, Linda Crocker and James Algina have provided the measurement community with a superb ...
construction (Crocker & Algina, 1986). As test theory emphasizes, practitioners who are more successful at distinguishing between models will be more likely to select well- developed tests and properly interpret test scores. Therefore, a strong ...
Reliability and Validity 8 mind the intended use of your instrument when considering these circumstances and deciding how to use an instrument (Crocker & Algina, 1986; Mehrens & Lehman, 1991; Gregory, 1992).
Crocker and Algina (1986) provide a series of steps to follow when pursuing a construct validation study: 1) generate hypotheses of how the construct should relate to both other constructs of interest
Abstract As Crocker and Algina (1986) noted, "Because irrelevant sources of [score] variation are unavoidable, it is important that they should not give an unfair advantage to
devising a test (Crocker & Algina, 1986) or the validity of an instrument is on focus. The significance of this test is to ensure replicability or repeatability of the result. Reliability and Validity in Quantitative Research
(Crocker & Algina, 1986). Intra-rater reliability concerns the consistency of one rater for the same test performance at different times (Jones, 1979). Both inter- and intra-rater reliability deserve close attention in that test scores are likely to vary from rater to rater or even from the
302 Babbie (1990) Kerlinger (1986) Crocker & Algina (1986) Index Summated Rating Scale Subject-centered [Scaling] Method Thurstone Scales Thurstone Equal-Interval Stimulus-centered [Scaling] Methods
Crocker and Algina (1986, p. 441) noted that the nonlinear conversion implicit in conversion to percentile ranks can cause people to misinterpret these scores: Most misinterpretations arise when test users fail to recognize that
The third type of reliability is estimated by internal consistency methods (Crocker & Algina, 1986). The internal consistency of a test is the degree to which all of the items in the test are measures of the same characteristic or attribute or combination of characteristics or
Crocker L. and Algina J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston 2. Nitko A.J (1996): Educational assessment of students. Second edition, New Jersey, USA, Prentice- Hall. Title:
Designed 100 years ago (Crocker & Algina, 1986), classical approaches to assessing test quality are unsuited to the contemporary context of technology-based learning (Messick, 1988). We will discuss evolving conceptions of
in the test (Crocker & Algina, 1986). In this study coefficient alpha, p-values and r pbis are used from the CTT. 4 Method: Item response theory There are a number of different IRT models. In this study, the three
and summarize the empirical evidence (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Identifying an appropriate criterion is critical for criterion-related validity because the evidence for the validity is strictly based on the degree of empirical relationship between
(e.g., Cronbach, 1971; Crocker & Algina, 1986). A Modified View of Reliability (Moss, 1994) • There can be validity without reliability. • Reliability is a aspect of construct validity. • Assessment is becoming less standardized.
limited, which ultimately results in much lower score reliability (Crocker & Algina, 1986). The Spearman-Brown prophecy formula can be used to predict a change in the reliability of test scores based on the extent to which test items have been added or removed, assuming that
Crocker, L. & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Orlando FL: Harcourt Brace. Required Readings . Betz, N. E., & Weiss, D. J. (2008). Validity. In B. F. Bolton & R. M. Parker, Handbook of measurement and
Tentative Schedule Date Topic Readings Sept 26 Classical Test Theory Wainer & Thissen, 2001 Crocker & Algina, 1986, Ch.6 Oct 3 IRT Overview & Background Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, 1991, Ch.1
Crocker & Algina, 1986; Goodenough, 1949; Gronlund, 1988; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994; Payne, 1975; Suen, 1990), is also represented by Traub (1994) who noted that “the usual reliability experiments provide a sample
1979; Crocker & Algina, 1986; Lord & Novick, 1968). The different-time/same-item covariances are sensitive to these inflationary effects and intuitively might be eliminated from the test–retest correlation to correct for this bias.
Item response theory and classical test theory: an empirical comparison of their item/person statistics. monotonically related under certain conditions (Crocker & Algina, 1986; Lord, 1980).
data reported by Crocker and Algina (1986, p. 162). Because additive con-stants do not affect variances or ratios of variances (such as reliability coeffi-FAN AND THOMPSON 519 Table 1 Heuristic Data Item Person 1 2 3 Total 1 121 4 2 746 17 3 311 5 4 325 10 5 744 15 6 746 17 7 534 12
Additional detail is provided elsewhere (Crocker & Algina, 1986; McKinley & Mills, 1989). Although CTT has served the measurement community for most of this century, IRT has witnessed an exponential growth in recent decades. The major advantage ...
Statistical Foundations Crocker, L. & Algina, J. (1986). Test scores as composites. In Introduction to classical and modern test theory (pp. 87-104).
reproducibility of scores on the measurement procedure (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Scores on an instrument must demonstrate acceptable levels of reliability before validity, the degree in which scores provide meaningful interpretations for a construct of interest, can be verified (Crocker &
Section II: Classical Test Theory Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
from those in the lower 30% who answered the item correctly (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Oermann and Gaberson (1998) point out that it is important to realize that an item’s ability to discriminate is highly related to its difficulty index. Thus, an item ...
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. NY: CBS college publishing. Fan, X. (1998). Item response theory and classical test theory: an empirical comparison of their item/person statistics.
Crocker, L. and Algina, J. (1986) Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers: Fort Worth, 527 pp. Title: Microsoft Word - Item_Calibration_and_Pretesting.doc Author: Jodie2 Created Date:
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986), Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Diamond, J., & Evans, W. (1973). The correction for guessing. Review of Educational Research 43, 181-191. New Corrections for Guessing 28 .
variance (Crocker & Algina, 1986; Feldt & Brennan, 1989; Lord & Novick, 1968) provides values quite approximate when applied to the coefﬁ cients of internal consistency. Previous analyses suggest that an appropriate way to analyze the role of potential moderating
samples, and an extensive collection of validity evidence must be gathered (Crocker & Algina, 1986; Gregory, 1992; Messick, 1995). Assessing Construct Validity Benson (1998) described three necessary components to developing a strong case for
Fiske, 1959; Crocker & Algina, 1986). In addition, we note that the procedure in this article is equally applicable with missing data, under the assumption of multinormality and missing at random, using the full information maximum likelihood method (e.g.,
Crocker, L. M., & Algina, L. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Cronbach, L. J., Rajaratnam, N., & Gleser, G. C. (1963). Theory of generalizability: A liberalization of reliability theory.
(Crocker & Algina, 1986; Shavelson & Webb, 1991). 4. Assumptions of GT The assumptions underlying GT are basically the same assumptions of CTT. First, the data examined in a generalizabilty analysis should be interval or ordinal in nature.
that is strongly recommended by measurement experts (e.g., Crocker and Algina 1986; Mueller 1986). Student surveys are useful in characterizing a questionnaire through the eyes of the participants, whereas an in-depth lit-
Midterm Study Guide | PSY 444 | Spring, 2009 The midterm exam will be an in-class, closed book exam on Thursday, March 5th. The exam will cover material presented in class and in Crocker and Algina (1986).
• Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical & modern test theory. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston • McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 9/25/2009 32 Contact Information
(Crocker & Algina, 1986) assists us in constructing an optimal test with sufficient degree of reliability and validity for the purported uses of the test. The representative item parameters are item difficulty, item discrimination and distracter.
Reliability is the extent to which a test is repeatable and yields consistent scores (Crocker & Algina 1986). There are several types of reliability, many of which involve multiple administrations of the same test over time.
for the item are the same for both subpopulations (Crocker & Algina, 1986, p. 377). In that case, among individuals with the same ability score, the items are equally difficult for members of both subpopulations. Somewhat similarly, in ...
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York, NY: Holt Rinehart Wilson. CTB/McGraw-Hill (2003, August). The Maryland standard setting technical report. (Technical Report). Monterey, CA: CTB/McGraw-Hill.
theory (Comrey & Lee, 1992; Crocker & Algina, 1986; Gorsuch, 1983). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) procedures were used to compare the final EFA solutions for students, teachers, and parents across the organizational levels as well as for a combined
(Crocker&Algina,1986;Dawis,1987;Feldt&Brennan,1989;Pedhazur& 660 EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT. Schmelkin, 1991; Rowley, 1976; Thompson, 1994; Thompson & Vacha-Haase,2000;Vacha-Haase,1998;Wilkinson&AmericanPsychological
REFERENCES Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Druks, J. (2002).
Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Internal Consistency Estimates Test reliability is an indication of the consistency of the assessment. TAKS, SDAA II, RPTE, and
See Crocker and Algina’s Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory (1986) for a discussion of the state of psychometrics. ... Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986), Introduction to classical & modern test theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Crocker, L. M. & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. †EL Cudek, R. (1988). Multiplicative models and MTMM matrices. Journal of Educational Statistics, 13, 131-147. †ACWS
ity; Crocker & Algina, 1986). In this case, we assessed validity by comparing measures of writing quality ob-tained with the rubric to judgments of writing quality madebyanindependentevaluatorwhohasexperience in teaching and grading student writing but who did
05/16/02 6 Skill scale development. In assessment development, it is common for the assessment to be developed first and development of score scales to follow (Crocker & Algina, 1986;