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Cengel’s Thermodynamics is known to be student friendly, self-instructive, and easy to read and understand even for the most challenging topics with the help of attractive illustrations, examples, and real-world applications. The authors’ philosophy is that the best way to learn is by practice. Special effort is made throughout the book to reinforce material that was presented earlier and to appeal to students’ natural curiosity and intuition. For instructors looking to engage students and enhance their problem-solving skills, Connect offers student-friendly, accessible content, tools, and resources that develop high-level problem-solving and critical thinking skills, including New Application-Based Activities.

**Author(s):** Yunus A. Çengel, Michael A. Boles, Mehmet Kanoğlu

**Edition:** 10

**Publisher:** McGraw Hill

**Year:** 2023

**Language:** English

**Pages:** 974

**City:** New York

Cover

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

Quotes on Ethics

About the Authors

Brief Contents

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter One: Introduction and Basic Concepts

1-1: Thermodynamics and Energy

Application Areas of Thermodynamics

1-2: Importance of Dimensions and Units

Some SI and English Units

Dimensional Homogeneity

Unity Conversion Ratios

1-3: Systems and Control Volumes

1-4: Properties of a System

Continuum

1-5: Density and Specific Gravity

1-6: State and Equilibrium

The State Postulate

1-7: Processes and Cycles

The Steady-Flow Process

1-8: Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature Scales

1-9: Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

1-10: Pressure Measurement Devices

The Barometer

The Manometer

Other Pressure Measurement Devices

1-11: Problem-Solving Technique

Step 1: Problem Statement

Step 2: Schematic

Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations

Step 4: Physical Laws

Step 5: Properties

Step 6: Calculations

Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion

Engineering Software Packages

Equation Solvers

A Remark on Significant Digits

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Two: Energy, Energy Transfer, and General Energy Analysis

2-1: Introduction

2-2: Forms of Energy

Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy

More on Nuclear Energy

Mechanical Energy

2-3: Energy Transfer by Heat

Historical Background on Heat

2-4: Energy Transfer by Work

Electrical Work

2-5: Mechanical Forms of Work

Shaft Work

Spring Work

Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars

Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film

Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body

Nonmechanical Forms of Work

2-6: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balance

Energy Change of a System, ΔEsystem

Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout

2-7: Energy Conversion Efficiencies

Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices

2-8: Energy and Environment

Ozone and Smog

Acid Rain

The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change

Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Three: Properties of Pure Substances

3-1: Pure Substance

3-2: Phases of a Pure Substance

3-3: Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances

Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid

Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor

Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure

Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence

3-4: Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes

1 The T-V Diagram

2 The P-V Diagram

Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase

3 The P-T Diagram

The P-V-T Surface

3-5: Property Tables

Enthalpy—A Combination Property

1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States

1b Saturated Liquid-Vapor Mixture

2 Superheated Vapor

3 Compressed Liquid

Reference State and Reference Values

3-6: The Ideal-Gas Equation of State

Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas?

3-7: Compressibility FactoróA Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior

3-8: Other Equations of State

van der Waals Equation of State

Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State

Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State

Virial Equation of State

Topic of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Four: Energy Analysis of Closed Systems

4-1: Moving Boundary Work

Polytropic Process

4-2: Energy Balance for Closed Systems

Constant-Pressure Processes of Closed Systems

4-3: Specific Heats

4-4: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases

Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases

4-5: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Five: Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

5-1: Conservation of Mass

Mass and Volume Flow Rates

Conservation of Mass Principle

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Special Case: Incompressible Flow

5-2: Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Energy Transport by Mass

5-3: Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems

5-4: Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices

1 Nozzles and Diffusers

2 Turbines and Compressors

3 Throttling Valves

4a Mixing Chambers

4b Heat Exchangers

5 Pipe and Duct Flow

5-5: Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Six: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

6-1: Introduction to the Second Law

6-2: Thermal Energy Reservoirs

6-3: Heat Engines

Thermal Efficiency

Can We Save Qout?

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck Statement

6-4: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

Coefficient of Performance

Heat Pumps

Performance of Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement

Equivalence of the Two Statements

6-5: Perpetual-Motion Machines

6-6: Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Irreversibilities

Internally and Externally Reversible Processes

6-7: The Carnot Cycle

The Reversed Carnot Cycle

6-8: The Carnot Principles

6-9: The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

6-10: The Carnot Heat Engine

The Quality of Energy

Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life

6-11: The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump

Topic of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Seven: Entropy

7-1: Clausius Inequality and Entropy

A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes

7-2: Entropy Generation and the Increase of Entropy Principle

Some Remarks About Entropy

7-3: Entropy Change of Pure Substances

7-4: Isentropic Processes

7-5: Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

7-6: What Is Entropy?

The Concept of Entropy in Daily Life

7-7: Differential Entropy Change Relations

7-8: Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids

7-9: The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases

Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)

Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)

Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eight: Entropy Analysis

8-1: Reversible Steady-Flow Work

Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work When the Process Is Reversible

8-2: Minimizing the Compressor Work

Multistage Compression with Intercooling

8-3: Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices

Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines

Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps

Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles

8-4: Entropy Balance

Entropy Change of a System, Ssystem

Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout

Entropy Generation, Sgen

8-5: Entropy Balance for Closed Systems

Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process

8-6: Entropy Balance for Control Volumes

Topic of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Nine: Exergy

9-1: Exergy: Work Potential of Energy

Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and Potential Energy

9-2: Reversible Work and Irreversibility

9-3: Second-Law Efficiency

9-4: Exergy Change of a System

Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy

Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy

9-5: Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass

Exergy Transfer by Heat, Q

Exergy Transfer by Work, W

Exergy Transfer by Mass, m

9-6: The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction

Exergy Destruction

9-7: Exergy Balance: Closed Systems

9-8: Exergy Balance: Control Volumes

Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems

Reversible Work

Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices

Topic of Special Interest: Implications of the Second-Law Concepts in Daily Life

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Ten: Gas Power Cycles

10-1: Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles

10-2: The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering

10-3: Air-Standard Assumptions

10-4: An Overview of Reciprocating Engines

10-5: Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines

10-6: Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines

10-7: Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

10-8: Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines

Development of Gas Turbines

Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones

10-9: The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration

10-10: The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration

10-11: Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles

Modifications to Turbojet Engines

10-12: Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles

Topic of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eleven:Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

11-1: The Carnot Vapor Cycle

11-2: Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles

Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle

11-3: Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones

11-4: How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle?

Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg)

Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh,avg)

Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,avg)

11-5: The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

11-6: The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Open Feedwater Heaters

Closed Feedwater Heaters

11-7: Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles

11-8: Cogeneration

11-9: Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycles

Topic of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Twelve: Refrigeration Cycles

12-1: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

12-2: The Reversed Carnot Cycle

12-3: The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-4: Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-5: Second-Law Analysis of Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-6: Selecting the Right Refrigerant

12-7: Heat Pump Systems

12-8: Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems

Cascade Refrigeration Systems

Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems

Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor

Liquefaction of Gases

12-9: Gas Refrigeration Cycles

12-10: Absorption Refrigeration Systems

Topic of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Thirteen: Thermodynamic Property Relations

13-1: A Little MathóPartial Derivatives and Associated Relations

Partial Differentials

Partial Differential Relations

13-2: The Maxwell Relations

13-3: The Clapeyron Equation

13-4: General Relations for du, dh, ds, cv, and cp

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Entropy Changes

Specific Heats cv and cp

13-5: The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

13-6: The Δh, Δu, and Δs of Real Gases

Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases

Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases

Entropy Changes of Real Gases

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Fourteen: Gas Mixtures

14-1: Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions

14-2: P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

14-3: Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

Topic of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of Mixtures

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Fifteen: Gas-Vapor Mixtures and Air-Conditioning

15-1: Dry and Atmospheric Air

15-2: Specific and Relative Humidity of air

15-3: Dew-Point Temperature

15-4: Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

15-5: The Psychrometric Chart

15-6: Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning

15-7: Air-Conditioning Processes

Simple Heating and Cooling (w = constant)

Heating with Humidification

Cooling with Dehumidification

Evaporative Cooling

Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams

Wet Cooling Towers

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Sixteen: Chemical Reactions

16-1: Fuels and Combustion

16-2: Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes

16-3: Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion

16-4: First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

Steady-Flow Systems

Closed Systems

16-5: Adiabatic Flame Temperature

16-6: Entropy Change of Reacting Systems

16-7: Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

Topic of Special Interest: Fuel Cells

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Seventeen: Chemical and Phase Equilibrium

17-1: Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium

17-2: The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures

17-3: Some Remarks About the KP of Ideal-Gas Mixtures

17-4: Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions

17-5: Variation of KP with Temperature

17-6: Phase Equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System

The Phase Rule

Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eighteen: Compressible Flow

18-1: Stagnation Properties

18-2: Speed of Sound and Mach Number

18-3: One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

18-4: Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

18-5: Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks

Oblique Shocks

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

18-6: Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

Choked Rayleigh Flow

18-7: Steam Nozzles

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Appendix One: Property Tables and Charts (Si Units)

Table A-1: Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A-2: Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A-3: Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A-4: Saturated wateróTemperature table

Table A-5: Saturated wateróPressure table

Table A-6: Superheated water

Table A-7: Compressed liquid water

Table A-8: Saturated ice-water vapor

Figure A-9: T-s diagram for water

Figure A-10: Mollier diagram for water

Table A-11: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A-12: Saturated refrigerant-134aóPressure table

Table A-13: Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A-14: P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Figure A-15: Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility chart

Table A-16: Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Table A-17: Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A-18: Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A-19: Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A-20: Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

Table A-21: Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A-22: Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A-23: Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

Table A-24: Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O

Table A-25: Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH

Table A-26: Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm

Table A-27: Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Table A-28: Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp

Figure A-29: Generalized enthalpy departure chart

Figure A-30: Generalized entropy departure chart

Figure A-31: Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

Table A-32: One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Table A-33: One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Table A-34: Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Appendix Two: Property Tables and Charts (English Units)

Table A-1E: Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A-2E: Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A-3E: Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A-4E: Saturated wateróTemperature table

Table A-5E: Saturated wateróPressure table

Table A-6E: Superheated water

Table A-7E: Compressed liquid water

Table A-8E: Saturated ice-water vapor

Figure A-9E: T-s diagram for water

Figure A-10E: Mollier diagram for water

Table A-11E: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A-12E: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Table A-13E: Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A-14E: P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Table A-16E: Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Table A-17E: Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A-18E: Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A-19E: Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A-20E: Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

Table A-21E: Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A-22E: Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A-23E: Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

Table A-26E: Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 77°F, 1 atm

Table A-27E: Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Figure A-31E: Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

Index

Nomenclature

Conversion Factors

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

Quotes on Ethics

About the Authors

Brief Contents

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter One: Introduction and Basic Concepts

1-1: Thermodynamics and Energy

Application Areas of Thermodynamics

1-2: Importance of Dimensions and Units

Some SI and English Units

Dimensional Homogeneity

Unity Conversion Ratios

1-3: Systems and Control Volumes

1-4: Properties of a System

Continuum

1-5: Density and Specific Gravity

1-6: State and Equilibrium

The State Postulate

1-7: Processes and Cycles

The Steady-Flow Process

1-8: Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature Scales

1-9: Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

1-10: Pressure Measurement Devices

The Barometer

The Manometer

Other Pressure Measurement Devices

1-11: Problem-Solving Technique

Step 1: Problem Statement

Step 2: Schematic

Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations

Step 4: Physical Laws

Step 5: Properties

Step 6: Calculations

Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion

Engineering Software Packages

Equation Solvers

A Remark on Significant Digits

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Two: Energy, Energy Transfer, and General Energy Analysis

2-1: Introduction

2-2: Forms of Energy

Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy

More on Nuclear Energy

Mechanical Energy

2-3: Energy Transfer by Heat

Historical Background on Heat

2-4: Energy Transfer by Work

Electrical Work

2-5: Mechanical Forms of Work

Shaft Work

Spring Work

Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars

Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film

Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body

Nonmechanical Forms of Work

2-6: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balance

Energy Change of a System, ΔEsystem

Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout

2-7: Energy Conversion Efficiencies

Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices

2-8: Energy and Environment

Ozone and Smog

Acid Rain

The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change

Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Three: Properties of Pure Substances

3-1: Pure Substance

3-2: Phases of a Pure Substance

3-3: Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances

Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid

Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor

Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure

Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence

3-4: Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes

1 The T-V Diagram

2 The P-V Diagram

Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase

3 The P-T Diagram

The P-V-T Surface

3-5: Property Tables

Enthalpy—A Combination Property

1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States

1b Saturated Liquid-Vapor Mixture

2 Superheated Vapor

3 Compressed Liquid

Reference State and Reference Values

3-6: The Ideal-Gas Equation of State

Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas?

3-7: Compressibility FactoróA Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior

3-8: Other Equations of State

van der Waals Equation of State

Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State

Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State

Virial Equation of State

Topic of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Four: Energy Analysis of Closed Systems

4-1: Moving Boundary Work

Polytropic Process

4-2: Energy Balance for Closed Systems

Constant-Pressure Processes of Closed Systems

4-3: Specific Heats

4-4: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases

Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases

4-5: Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Solids and Liquids

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Five: Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

5-1: Conservation of Mass

Mass and Volume Flow Rates

Conservation of Mass Principle

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Special Case: Incompressible Flow

5-2: Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Energy Transport by Mass

5-3: Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems

5-4: Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices

1 Nozzles and Diffusers

2 Turbines and Compressors

3 Throttling Valves

4a Mixing Chambers

4b Heat Exchangers

5 Pipe and Duct Flow

5-5: Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Six: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

6-1: Introduction to the Second Law

6-2: Thermal Energy Reservoirs

6-3: Heat Engines

Thermal Efficiency

Can We Save Qout?

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck Statement

6-4: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

Coefficient of Performance

Heat Pumps

Performance of Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement

Equivalence of the Two Statements

6-5: Perpetual-Motion Machines

6-6: Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Irreversibilities

Internally and Externally Reversible Processes

6-7: The Carnot Cycle

The Reversed Carnot Cycle

6-8: The Carnot Principles

6-9: The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

6-10: The Carnot Heat Engine

The Quality of Energy

Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life

6-11: The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump

Topic of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Seven: Entropy

7-1: Clausius Inequality and Entropy

A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes

7-2: Entropy Generation and the Increase of Entropy Principle

Some Remarks About Entropy

7-3: Entropy Change of Pure Substances

7-4: Isentropic Processes

7-5: Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

7-6: What Is Entropy?

The Concept of Entropy in Daily Life

7-7: Differential Entropy Change Relations

7-8: Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids

7-9: The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases

Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)

Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)

Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eight: Entropy Analysis

8-1: Reversible Steady-Flow Work

Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work When the Process Is Reversible

8-2: Minimizing the Compressor Work

Multistage Compression with Intercooling

8-3: Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices

Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines

Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps

Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles

8-4: Entropy Balance

Entropy Change of a System, Ssystem

Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout

Entropy Generation, Sgen

8-5: Entropy Balance for Closed Systems

Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process

8-6: Entropy Balance for Control Volumes

Topic of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Nine: Exergy

9-1: Exergy: Work Potential of Energy

Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and Potential Energy

9-2: Reversible Work and Irreversibility

9-3: Second-Law Efficiency

9-4: Exergy Change of a System

Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy

Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy

9-5: Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass

Exergy Transfer by Heat, Q

Exergy Transfer by Work, W

Exergy Transfer by Mass, m

9-6: The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction

Exergy Destruction

9-7: Exergy Balance: Closed Systems

9-8: Exergy Balance: Control Volumes

Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems

Reversible Work

Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices

Topic of Special Interest: Implications of the Second-Law Concepts in Daily Life

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Ten: Gas Power Cycles

10-1: Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles

10-2: The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering

10-3: Air-Standard Assumptions

10-4: An Overview of Reciprocating Engines

10-5: Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines

10-6: Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines

10-7: Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

10-8: Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines

Development of Gas Turbines

Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones

10-9: The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration

10-10: The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration

10-11: Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles

Modifications to Turbojet Engines

10-12: Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles

Topic of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eleven:Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

11-1: The Carnot Vapor Cycle

11-2: Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles

Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle

11-3: Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones

11-4: How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle?

Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg)

Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh,avg)

Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,avg)

11-5: The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

11-6: The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Open Feedwater Heaters

Closed Feedwater Heaters

11-7: Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles

11-8: Cogeneration

11-9: Combined Gas-Vapor Power Cycles

Topic of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Twelve: Refrigeration Cycles

12-1: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

12-2: The Reversed Carnot Cycle

12-3: The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-4: Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-5: Second-Law Analysis of Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

12-6: Selecting the Right Refrigerant

12-7: Heat Pump Systems

12-8: Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems

Cascade Refrigeration Systems

Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems

Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor

Liquefaction of Gases

12-9: Gas Refrigeration Cycles

12-10: Absorption Refrigeration Systems

Topic of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Thirteen: Thermodynamic Property Relations

13-1: A Little MathóPartial Derivatives and Associated Relations

Partial Differentials

Partial Differential Relations

13-2: The Maxwell Relations

13-3: The Clapeyron Equation

13-4: General Relations for du, dh, ds, cv, and cp

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Entropy Changes

Specific Heats cv and cp

13-5: The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

13-6: The Δh, Δu, and Δs of Real Gases

Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases

Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases

Entropy Changes of Real Gases

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Fourteen: Gas Mixtures

14-1: Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions

14-2: P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

14-3: Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

Topic of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of Mixtures

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Fifteen: Gas-Vapor Mixtures and Air-Conditioning

15-1: Dry and Atmospheric Air

15-2: Specific and Relative Humidity of air

15-3: Dew-Point Temperature

15-4: Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

15-5: The Psychrometric Chart

15-6: Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning

15-7: Air-Conditioning Processes

Simple Heating and Cooling (w = constant)

Heating with Humidification

Cooling with Dehumidification

Evaporative Cooling

Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams

Wet Cooling Towers

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Sixteen: Chemical Reactions

16-1: Fuels and Combustion

16-2: Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes

16-3: Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion

16-4: First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

Steady-Flow Systems

Closed Systems

16-5: Adiabatic Flame Temperature

16-6: Entropy Change of Reacting Systems

16-7: Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

Topic of Special Interest: Fuel Cells

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Seventeen: Chemical and Phase Equilibrium

17-1: Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium

17-2: The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures

17-3: Some Remarks About the KP of Ideal-Gas Mixtures

17-4: Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions

17-5: Variation of KP with Temperature

17-6: Phase Equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System

The Phase Rule

Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Chapter Eighteen: Compressible Flow

18-1: Stagnation Properties

18-2: Speed of Sound and Mach Number

18-3: One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

18-4: Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

18-5: Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks

Oblique Shocks

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

18-6: Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

Choked Rayleigh Flow

18-7: Steam Nozzles

Summary

References and Suggested Readings

Problems

Appendix One: Property Tables and Charts (Si Units)

Table A-1: Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A-2: Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A-3: Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A-4: Saturated wateróTemperature table

Table A-5: Saturated wateróPressure table

Table A-6: Superheated water

Table A-7: Compressed liquid water

Table A-8: Saturated ice-water vapor

Figure A-9: T-s diagram for water

Figure A-10: Mollier diagram for water

Table A-11: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A-12: Saturated refrigerant-134aóPressure table

Table A-13: Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A-14: P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Figure A-15: Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility chart

Table A-16: Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Table A-17: Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A-18: Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A-19: Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A-20: Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

Table A-21: Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A-22: Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A-23: Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

Table A-24: Ideal-gas properties of monatomic oxygen, O

Table A-25: Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH

Table A-26: Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 25°C, 1 atm

Table A-27: Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Table A-28: Natural logarithms of the equilibrium constant Kp

Figure A-29: Generalized enthalpy departure chart

Figure A-30: Generalized entropy departure chart

Figure A-31: Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

Table A-32: One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Table A-33: One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Table A-34: Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4

Appendix Two: Property Tables and Charts (English Units)

Table A-1E: Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A-2E: Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A-3E: Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A-4E: Saturated wateróTemperature table

Table A-5E: Saturated wateróPressure table

Table A-6E: Superheated water

Table A-7E: Compressed liquid water

Table A-8E: Saturated ice-water vapor

Figure A-9E: T-s diagram for water

Figure A-10E: Mollier diagram for water

Table A-11E: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Temperature table

Table A-12E: Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure table

Table A-13E: Superheated refrigerant-134a

Figure A-14E: P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a

Table A-16E: Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude

Table A-17E: Ideal-gas properties of air

Table A-18E: Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2

Table A-19E: Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A-20E: Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2

Table A-21E: Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO

Table A-22E: Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2

Table A-23E: Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O

Table A-26E: Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function of formation, and absolute entropy at 77°F, 1 atm

Table A-27E: Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Figure A-31E: Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total pressure

Index

Nomenclature

Conversion Factors