Sport and Mental Health: From Research to Everyday Practice

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This user-friendly, comprehensive and highly relevant book allows readers to gain a better understanding of mental health issues in sport and exercise. The field of sports psychiatry continues to grow globally at a rapid pace. This, in part, can be explained by the changing culture of sport leading to an appreciation of the role of psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in the world of sport, but also the increasing spread of both highly performance oriented and grass-roots basic sports and the associated risks in large sections of the population. The long-standing stigma attached to mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, suicide, brain injuries, substance-abuse, is being challenged not only by high-profile athletes, but also in public health and general mental health services.

The book utilizes an innovative case-based and structured didactical format to provide short summaries of recent research by leading experts in the respective fields, as well as up-to date prevention and clinical guidelines for all relevant disorders in a way that is easily accessible to the large and growing groups interested and active in sports. This work is relevant for all mental health professionals and can also be used by a wider readership including medical doctors, psychologists, athletes and coaches.

A second volume covers the role of exercise as an effective treatment for a number of common psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance abuse.

Author(s): David Baron (editor), Thomas Wenzel (editor), Andreas Ströhle (editor), Todd Stull (editor)
Publisher: Springer
Year: 2023

Language: English
Pages: 324

Part I: Factors Affecting Mental Health in Athletes
A Proposed Novel Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of the Young Athlete
1 Introduction
1.1 Global Overview
1.2 General Youth Sports Research
1.3 The Potential Value of Youth Sports Participation
2 Youth Sports and Mental Health
3 The Professionalization of Youth Sports
3.1 Developmental Considerations
4 Overview of the Suggested Model
5 Level I: Introduction to Youth Sports: The Player, Parent, Coach, and Peers
5.1 The Player
5.2 The Parent/Guardian
5.3 The Coach
5.4 Peers
6 Level II: Greater Interaction among Level I Contributors
6.1 The Player
6.2 The Parent
6.3 The Coach
6.4 Peers
7 Level III: Interdisciplinary, Professional Sports Science Care
7.1 Teachers
7.2 Primary Care Physicians
7.3 Sport Psychologist
7.4 Sport Psychiatry
8 Level IV: External Forces
9 Case
9.1 Application of the Model to Martin
10 Future Directions
10.1 Youth Sports Programs
10.2 Coach Training
10.3 Sports Science Practitioners
10.4 Final Discussion
Gender Differences in the Psychiatric Treatment of Athletes
1 Current Research of Gender Differences in the Psychopathology of Athletes
1.1 Mood Disorders
1.2 Anxiety Disorders
1.3 The Female Athletic Triad
1.4 Eating Disorders
1.5 Substance Use
2 Clinical Cases [6]
3 The Interdisciplinary Team: Duties Supporting Male and Female Athletes [7]
4 Key Points
5 Summary and Future Direction
Further Reading
Transcultural and Cultural Aspects of Sport Psychiatry
1 Introduction
2 Stigma, Health Belief Systems, Idioms of Distress, and Public Health
3 Interpreters, Language, and Cultural Formulations
4 Case Example 1
5 Treatment and Transcultural Psychotherapy
6 Case 2
7 Politics in Sport
8 Physical Factors
9 What Can the Athletes, Team Members, and Caregivers Do?
10 Short Summary and Checklist: What to Take Home
11 Conclusions
Sport and Human Rights
1 Introduction
2 Human Rights: Standards of Relevance
2.1 Article 1
2.2 Article 2
2.3 Article 3
3 Case Example
4 Possible Interventions
5 Giving Asylum
6 Role of the Multidisciplinary Team
7 Summary and What to “Take Home”
Further Reading
Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Elite Athletes
1 Overview
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Causes of Altered Sleep Quality in Elite Athletes
1.3 Psychiatric Diagnoses Causing Altered Sleep Quality
1.4 Consequences of Sleep Deprivation in Elite Athletes
1.5 Diagnostic Instruments for Monitoring Sleep
2 Sleep Hygiene
2.1 Psychotherapy
3 Pharmacological Interventions
4 Clinical Case: The Importance of Sleep Hygiene
5 Role of Different Disciplines in Providing Integrated Care to the Athlete
6 Text Box
7 Summary
Mental Health Emergencies in Athletes
1 Introduction
2 Definitions
3 Case Illustration
4 Dissecting the Case
5 Signs of Mental Distress
6 Managing a Mental Health Crisis with the IST
7 Take-Home Points
8 Summary
9 Future Directions
Further Reading
Doping in Sports
1 History of Doping in Sports
2 Current State of Doping
3 Doping Control/Testing
4 Culture of Doping in Sport
5 Case Study
6 Treatment Issues
7 Interprofessional Integration of Care Model for Collaboration
8 Responsibilities of Stakeholders
8.1 Athlete
8.2 Teammates
8.3 Coaches
8.4 Trainers and Athlete Care Providers
8.5 Governing Bodies
9 The Future-Evolving Issues in Doping in Sport
10 Summary
Further Reading
After Sexual Abuse or other Extreme Life Events
1 Introduction and Brief History of Research and Clinical Care
1.1 Sexual Abuse
2 Current Evidence-Based (State-of-the-Art) Research and Treatment Strategies
2.1 Caveats: What to Keep in Mind
3 Clinical Case Presentation
4 Interprofessional Collaboration
5 Conclusions
Further Reading
Sports in the COVID-19 Era
1 Introduction
2 Universality of Sport
3 Global Spread of COVID-19
4 Immediate Impact on Sport
5 Psychological Impact of COVID-19: Interpreted in Disaster Modelling
6 Impact of Covid-19 on Athlete Mental Health
7 “Ripple” Effect of Impact on Sports
8 Emergence from the Pandemic
9 Mental Health Inside a Bubble
10 Navigating Through an Ongoing Pandemic
11 Summary
12 Future Directions
Pharmacotherapy in Sport
1 Introduction and Brief History of Research and Clinical Care
2 Current Evidence-Based Research and Treatment Strategies in Pharmacotherapy for Sport
2.1 Depression
2.2 Anxiety and Related Symptoms
2.3 Sleep Issues
2.4 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
2.5 Eating Disorders
2.6 Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders
3 Clinical Case Presentation
4 Interprofessional Collaboration
5 Summary
6 Future Directions
Further Reading
Concussion in Athletes
1 Introduction
1.1 History of Concussion in Sport
2 Beginnings of Sport-Related Concussion in Boxing
3 The History of Concussion in American Football
4 Current Understanding of Sports-Related Concussion and Research
5 Neuroimaging
5.1 Ultra-High Field Structural Imaging
5.2 Diffusion Tensor Imaging
5.3 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
5.4 Positron Emission Tomography
6 Biomarkers
6.1 S100β
6.2 Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
6.3 Neuron-Specific Enolase
6.4 Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Protein
6.5 Tau Protein
7 Review of Current Evidence-Based Treatments
7.1 Management of Early Symptoms
7.2 Management of Long-Term Symptoms
7.3 Mood Symptoms
7.4 Somatic
7.5 Cognitive
7.6 Sleep
8 Interprofessional Integration of Sports Concussion: Evaluation and Treatment
8.1 The Athlete
8.2 Teammates/Peers
8.3 Coaches
8.4 Trainers
8.5 Physicians and Medical Providers
9 Case Presentation
10 Conclusion/Future Directions
Further Reading
Part II: Clinical Mental Health Symptoms and Syndromes in Athletes
Helping the Athlete with Depression
1 Introduction
2 Current Research and Treatment Strategies
3 Prevalence
4 Etiology and Risk Factors in Sport
5 Injury and Depression
6 Depression and Overtraining
7 Depression and Suicide
8 Diagnosis
9 Assessment
10 Therapy
10.1 Psychotherapy
10.2 Antidepressant Medication
11 Recovery and Rehabilitation
12 Case Study
12.1 Presentation
12.2 Assessment
12.3 Background
12.4 Past History
12.5 Treatment
12.6 MDT Support
12.7 Outcome
13 Future Directions
13.1 Prevention
13.2 Screening
13.3 Treatment
13.4 Recovery and Rehabilitation
14 Conclusion
Further Reading
Anxiety in Athletes
1 Introduction
2 Etiology
3 Diagnosis
4 Anxiety in the Athlete
5 Epidemiology
6 Anxiety Disorders
6.1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
6.2 Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety
6.3 Social Anxiety
6.4 Sports-Related Performance Anxiety
6.5 Panic Disorder
6.6 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
7 Vignette
8 Integrated Care of the Athlete with Anxiety
9 Discussion/Future Directions
Further Reading
Substance Use in Athletes
1 Introduction
2 Alcohol
3 Stimulants
4 Cannabis/Cannabidiol
5 Opioids
6 Nicotine
7 Cocaine
8 Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
9 Research and Treatment Strategies
10 Case
11 Interprofessional Collaboration
12 Conclusion
Suggested Readings
Psychosis in Sports
1 Introduction
2 Early Psychosis Services
3 Clinical Case Example 1
4 Assessment
5 Current Approaches to Treatment
6 Clinical Case Example 2: THC-Induced Psychosis
7 Management of Psychosis in Athletes
7.1 Research Review
7.2 Clinical Treatment Guidelines
7.3 Program Development
7.4 Agenda for Knowledge Development
8 Integrated Treatment Model
9 Summary
Eating Disorders in Sport
1 Eating Disorders
2 Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations
3 BEDS-7 Screening Questionnaire
4 Summary of Multidisciplinary Team Approach and Roles
5 Sports Medicine Physician Checklist
6 Sports Psychiatrist (DO/MD) or Sports Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse (PMHNP)
7 Case Example 1: Eating Disorder in the Cisgender Female Athlete
8 Multidisciplinary Team Roles and Approach to Treatment in Case #1
9 Eating Disorder Recommendations
10 Case Example 2: Eating Disorder in a Cisgender Male Athlete
11 Multidisciplinary Team Roles and Approach to Treatment in Case #2
12 Summary and Research Going Forward
Further Readings
ADHD in Athletes
1 Introduction
1.1 Is ADHD Not Just an Excuse for Immaturity or Laziness?
1.2 The Story
1.2.1 He Might Have Ended Up Like His Father, But the Coach and the Teacher Noticed
1.2.2 It Is Just Untreated ADHD. Treated, There Is Notable Improvement
1.2.3 Gambling, Drugs, Kicked Off a Professional Team
Treating the ADHD (Too Late for Sport, But Not for Life) Was Central to Recovery
1.2.4 An Injured Olympian Decides to Treat the ADHD That Was Diagnosed When She Was a Child
1.2.5 Despite the Concussions, Treatment Was “Like a Switch Went On in My Head”
1.2.6 It Is Complicated, But a Strong Treatment Team Is Up to the Challenge
1.2.7 “I’m Afraid My Coaches and Teammates Will Find Out How Much of a Mess I Really Am”
1.3 Winding Down: Technical Details, as Promised
Further Reading
Personality in Athletes
1 Introduction: Brief History of Research
2 Current Evidenced-Based Research and Treatment Strategies
2.1 Big Five
2.2 Type-D-Personality
2.3 Sensation Seeking
2.4 Perfectionism
2.5 Athletic Identity
2.6 Mental Toughness
2.7 Mental Hardiness
2.8 Dark Triad
2.9 Aggression
2.10 Causal Pathways/Theoretical Framework
2.11 Personality Disorders in Athletes
3 Clinical Case Presentation
4 Interprofessional Collaboration
5 Discussion
5.1 Summary
5.2 Future Directions
6 Recommended Readings