Psychology, Canadian Edition

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Inspire a love of science Psychology by Schacter, Gilbert & Nock is the introductory psychology text that inspires a love of science and tells the story of psychology in a way that captivates students. This edition offers hundreds of new citations that reflect the author's commitment to thorough and modern research; careful attention to diversity, equity and inclusion; and examples and applications that demonstrate the real world uses of the field.

Author(s): Daniel L. Schacter; Daniel T. Gilbert; Matthew K. Nock; Ingrid Johnsrude
Edition: 6
Publisher: Worth Publishers
Year: 2023

Language: English
Pages: 3275

About this Book
Cover Page
New! Achieve for Psychology
Halftitle Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Authors
Brief Contents
A Note to Students
A Note to Instructors
Words Matter
Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychological Science
Psychology’s Philosophical Roots
Dualism and Materialism
Realism and Idealism
Empiricism and Nativism
Other Voices: How Should We Judge Historical Figures?
The Late 1800s: Towards a Science of the Mind
Structuralism: What Is the Mind Like?
Functionalism: What Is the Mind For?
The Early 1900s: Psychoanalysis and Behaviourism
Psychoanalysis: The Mind Does Not Know Itself
Behaviourism: The Mind Does Not Matter
The Early 1900s: Resistance to Behaviourism
Gestalt Psychology and Developmental Psychology
Social Psychology
The Real World: Beneath the Ocean of Memory
The Late 1900s: The Cognitive Revolution
Cognitive Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
After the Revolution
The Early 2000s: New Frontiers
Cultural Psychology
A World of Difference: To Have or Have Not
Becoming a Psychologist
Who Becomes a Psychologist?
How Do People Become Psychologists?
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 2 Methods in Psychology
Empiricism: How to Know Stuff
The Scientific Method
The Art of Looking
A World of Difference: Are Heroes and Sheroes Divided by Zeroes?
Methods of Observation: Discovering What People Do
Methods of Explanation: Discovering Why People Do What They Do
Hot Science: Hate Posts and Hate Crimes: Not Just a Correlation
The Real World: The Surprisingly High Likelihood of Unlikely Coincidences
Drawing Conclusions
Other Voices: Psychology Is Not in Crisis
Thinking Critically About Evidence
We See What We Expect and Want to See
We Don’t Consider What We Don’t See
The Skeptical Stance
The Ethics of Science: Doing What’s Right
Respecting People
Respecting Animals
Respecting Truth
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 3 Neuroscience and Behaviour
Neurons: The Origin of Behaviour
Components of the Neuron
Neurons Specialized by Function
Neurons Specialized by Location
Other Voices: Neuromyths
The Electrochemical Actions of Neurons: Information Processing
Electric Signaling: Conducting Information Inside a Neuron
Chemical Signaling: Transmission Between Neurons
The Organization of the Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous System
Components of the Central Nervous System
The Real World: The Power of Thought: Brain–Computer Interfaces
Structure of the Brain
The Hindbrain
The Midbrain
The Forebrain
The Real World: What the Brain Likes: The Instagram Effect
Brain Plasticity
A World of Difference: Alzheimer’s Disease and the Hippocampus: Sex Differences
Genes, Epigenetics, and the Environment
What Are Genes?
A Role for Epigenetics
The Role of Environmental Factors
Investigating the Brain
Studying the Damaged Brain
Studying the Brain’s Electrical Activity
Using Brain Imaging to Study Structure and to Watch the Brain in Action
Hot Science: Big Brain, Smart Brain?
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception
Sensation and Perception Are Distinct Activities
Sensory Energy and Transduction
The Illusion of Perception
Sensory Adaptation
Measuring Thresholds
Signal Detection
The Real World: Multitasking
Visual Pathways: Connections Between the Eye and the Brain
Sensing Light
Perceiving Colour
The Visual Brain
Visual Perception: Recognizing What We See
Binding Individual Features into a Whole
Recognizing Objects by Sight
Perceiving Depth and Size
Perceiving Motion and Change
A World of Difference: The Experience of Synesthesia
Hearing: More Than Meets the Ear
Sensing Sound
Perceiving Sound Sources
Hearing Loss
Hot Science: Big Technology in Little Ears
The Body Senses: More Than Skin Deep
Sensing Touch
Sensing Pain
Perceiving Pain
Body Position, Movement, and Balance
The Chemical Senses: Adding Flavour
Sense of Smell
Perceiving Smell
Sense of Taste
Perceiving Flavour
Other Voice: A World without Smell and Taste
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 5 Consciousness
The Mysteries of Consciousness
The Problem of Other Minds
The Mind–Body Problem
The Nature of Consciousness
Four Basic Properties
Levels of Consciousness
Disorders of Consciousness
The Real World: Anyone for Tennis?
Conscious Contents
The Unconscious Mind
Freudian Unconscious
A Modern View of the Cognitive Unconscious
The Unconscious Mind: Smart or Not So Smart?
Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind
A World of Difference: Dreaming Blind
Drugs and Consciousness: Artificial Inspiration
Drug Use and Addiction
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
Hot Science: Why Is There an Opioid Epidemic and What Can We Do About It?
Other Voices: Canada’s Grand Cannabis Experiment Has Set Scientists Free
Hypnosis: Open to Suggestion
Induction and Susceptibility
Hypnotic Effects
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 6 Memory
What Is Memory?
Encoding: Transforming Perceptions Into Memories
Semantic Encoding
Visual Imagery Encoding
Organizational Encoding
Encoding of Survival-Related Information
Storage: Maintaining Memories Over Time
Sensory Storage
Short-Term Storage and Working Memory
Long-Term Storage
The Hippocampus as Index: Linking Pieces Into One Memory
Memories, Neurons, and Synapses
Hot Science: Can Sleep Enhance Learning? Yes!
Retrieval: Bringing Memories to Mind
Retrieval Cues: Reinstating the Past
Consequences of Retrieval
Separating the Components of Retrieval
Forms of Long-Term Memory: More Than One Kind
Implicit Memory
Explicit Memory: Semantic and Episodic
A World of Difference: Do We All Reexperience Our Personal Pasts?
Collaborative Memory: Social Influences on Remembering
The Real World: Is GPS Hurting Our Memories?
Memory Failures: The Seven “Sins” of Memory
1. Transience
2. Absentmindedness
3. Blocking
4. Memory Misattribution
Other Voices: Memories Inside Out
5. Suggestibility
6. Bias
7. Persistence
Are the Seven “Sins” Vices or Virtues?
Hot Science: Memory Misattribution: When Accurate Inferences Produce Mistaken Recollections
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 7 Learning
What Is Learning?
Classical Conditioning: One Thing Leads to Another
The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Emotional Responses: The Case of Little Albert
A Deeper Understanding of Classical Conditioning
The Real World: Understanding Drug Overdoses
Operant Conditioning: Reinforcements from the Environment
The Development of Operant Conditioning: The Law of Effect
B. F. Skinner: The Role of Reinforcement and Punishment
The Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
A Deeper Understanding of Operant Conditioning
Hot Science: Dopamine and Reward Learning: From Parkinson’s Disease to Gambling
Observational Learning: Look at Me
Observational Learning in Humans
Observational Learning in Animals
Neural Elements of Observational Learning
Implicit Learning: Under the Radar
Cognitive Approaches to Implicit Learning
Implicit and Explicit Learning Use Distinct Neural Pathways
A World of Difference: Cultural Influences on Implicit Learning
Learning in the Classroom
Techniques for Learning
Testing Aids Attention
Control of Learning
Other Voices: The Dangers of Learning Loss
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivation
The Nature of Emotion
The Emotional Mind
The Emotional Body
Emotional Brain
Other Voices: Do Dogs Feel Emotions Like Hope and Guilt?
Emotional Communication
Communicative Expression
Hot Science: The Unhappy Audience Illusion
Deceptive Expression
A World of Difference: Say Cheese
The Nature of Motivation
A Little History
The Hedonic Principle
The Motivated Body
Hunger: The Need to Eat
Sexual Desire: The Need to Mate
The Real World: Get It While You Can
The Motivated Mind
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic
Conscious Versus Unconscious
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 9 Language and Thought
Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning
The Complex Structure of Human Language
Language Development
Theories of Language Development
The Real World: Exploring the 30-Million-Word Gap
Language and the Brain
Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area of the Brain
Involvement of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere
Bilingualism and the Brain
Can Other Species Learn Human Language?
A World of Difference: Language without Sight: A Role for Visual Cortex
Language and Thought: How Are They Related?
Language and Colour Processing: Differing Results
Was Whorf “Half Right”?
Concepts and Categories: How We Think
Psychological Theories of Concepts and Categories
Concepts, Categories, and the Brain
Decision Making: Rational and Otherwise
The Rational Ideal
The Irrational Reality
Why Do We Make Decision-Making Errors?
Decision Making and the Brain
Hot Science: Aligning Perceived and Actual Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Problem Solving: Working It Out
Means–Ends Analysis
Analogical Problem Solving
Creativity and Insight
Reasoning: Truth and Validity
Belief Bias
The Illusion of Truth
The Illusion of Explanatory Depth
Other Voices: The Right Way to Fight Fake News
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 10 Intelligence
How Can Intelligence Be Measured?
The Intelligence Test
Intelligence Matters
A World of Difference: Equality in Smartland
What Is Intelligence?
A Hierarchy of Abilities
The Middle-Level Abilities
Intelligence Across Cultures
Where Does Intelligence Come From?
Genetic Influences on Intelligence
Environmental Influences on Intelligence
The Real World: Is IQ Stable in Adolescence?
Gene–Environment Interactions
Hot Science: Brains Wide Open
Who Is Most Intelligent?
Individual Differences in Intelligence
Group Differences in Intelligence
Improving Intelligence
Other Voices: Not By Intelligence Alone
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 11 Development
Prenatality: A Womb with a View
Prenatal Development
Prenatal Environment
Infancy and Childhood: Perceiving, Doing, and Thinking
Perceptual Development
Motor Development
Cognitive Development
A World of Difference: That’s the Dumbest Thing I Never Heard!
Infancy and Childhood: Bonding and Helping
Social Development
Other Voices: For Indigenous Kids’ Welfare, Our Government Knows Better; It Just Needs to Do Better
Moral Development
Adolescence: Minding the Gap
The Protraction of Adolescence
Emerging Sexuality
From Parents to Peers
The Real World: Coming to Terms with Ourselves
Adulthood: Change We Can’t Believe In
Changing Abilities
Changing Goals
Changing Roles
Hot Science: There’s No Time Like the Present
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 12 Personality
Personality: What It Is and How It Is Measured
Describing and Explaining Personality
Measuring Personality
The Trait Approach: Identifying Patterns of Behaviour
Traits as Behavioural Dispositions and Motives
The Search for Core Traits
Other Voices: How Accurate Are Personality Tests?
Traits as Biological Building Blocks
Gender Differences: Biology or Culture?
A World of Difference: Do People of Different Genders Have Different Personality Traits?
Hot Science: Personality on the Surface
The Psychodynamic Approach: Forces That Lie Beneath Awareness
The Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
The Humanistic–Existential Approach: Personality as Choice
Human Needs and Self-Actualization
Personality as Existence
The Social–Cognitive Approach: Personalities in Situations
Consistency of Personality Across Situations
Personal Constructs: The Key to the Perceiver’s Personality
Personal Goals and Expectancies Lead to a Characteristic Style of Behaviour
The Real World: Does Your Personality Change Depending on Who You’re With?
The Self: Personality in the Mirror
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 13 Social Psychology
Other Voices: We Should Not Tolerate the Torture of Prisoners in Canada
Interpersonal Behaviour
Hot Science: Partners in Crime
The Real World: Where Are All the Altruists?
Interpersonal Attraction
Interpersonal Perception
Stereotyping: The Problem With Category-Based Inferences
Attribution: The Problem With Target-Based Inferences
A World of Difference: What’s It Like to Be You?
Interpersonal Influence
The Hedonic Motive
The Approval Motive
The Accuracy Motive
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 14 Stress and Health
Sources of Stress: What Gets to You
Stressful Events
Chronic Stressors
Perceived Control Over Stressful Events
A World of Difference: Can Discrimination Cause Stress and Illness?
Stress Reactions: All Shook Up
Physical Reactions
Psychological Reactions
Hot Science: Stress, Health, and Money
Stress Management: Dealing With It
Mind Management
Body Management
Situation Management
The Psychology of Illness: Mind Over Matter
Psychological Effects of Illness
Recognizing Illness and Seeking Treatment
On Being a Patient
Patient–Practitioner Interaction
The Real World: This Is Your Brain on Placebos
The Psychology of Health: Feeling Good
Personality and Health
Health-Promoting Behaviours and Self-Regulation
Other Voices: The Dangers of Overparenting
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders
Defining Mental Disorders: What Is Psychopathology?
Conceptualizing Mental Disorders
Classifying Disorders: The DSM
Disorders Appear in All Cultures
A World of Difference: The Impact of Culture on Mental Disorders
Causation of Disorders
A New Approach to Understanding Mental Disorders: RDoC
Dangers of Labelling
The Real World: How Are Mental Disorders Defined and Diagnosed?
Anxiety Disorders: Excessive Fear, Anxiety, and Avoidance
Phobic Disorders
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Persistent Thoughts and Repetitive Behaviours
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Distress and Avoidance After a Trauma
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Extreme Highs and Lows
Depressive Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders: Losing the Grasp on Reality
Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia
Biological Factors
Social/Psychological Factors
Other Voices: Successful and Schizophrenic
Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conduct Disorder
Hot Science: Optimal Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Personality Disorders: Extreme Traits and Characteristics
Types of Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Self-Harm Behaviours: Intentionally Injuring Oneself
Suicidal Behaviour
Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Chapter 16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Treatment: Getting Help to Those Who Need It
Why Many People Fail to Seek Treatment
Approaches to Treatment
Other Voices: The Intergenerational Trauma of First Nations Still Runs Deep
The Real World: Types of Psychotherapists
Psychological Treatments: Healing Through Human Interaction
Psychodynamic Therapy
Humanistic and Existential Therapies
Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies
Group Treatments: Healing Multiple Minds at the Same Time
Hot Science: “Rebooting” Psychological Treatment
Biological Treatments: Healing Through Physical Alteration of the Brain
Antipsychotic Medications
Antianxiety Medications
Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers
Herbal and Natural Products
Combining Medication and Psychotherapy
Biological Treatments Beyond Medication
A World of Difference: Differences in People’s Responses to Treatment
Treatment Effectiveness: For Better or For Worse
Treatment Illusions
Treatment Studies: Seeking Evidence
Which Treatments Work According to the Evidence?
Chapter Review
Changing Minds
Key Terms
Combined References
Name Index
Subject Index
Extended Descriptions
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A screenshot shows a page from Psychology 101, a digital textbook. A vertical sidebar shows icons for the Achieve logo, home, folders, a graduation cap, a bar graph, a book, two people, and a plus and forward slash back button
A screenshot of a video shows a woman and a toddler sitting at a table
A screenshot of a video shows a scatter plot titled, Do Humans Have a “Social Brain?”
A screenshot features the parts of the lateral view of the eye. Parts of the eye reads as follows. Pupil, Cornea, Iris, Lens, Retina, Fovea, Optic nerve, and Blind spot
A screenshot titled, Application Activity, Instructor Activity Guide for Happiness, explains an activity
An illustration shows two cell phones, a computer monitor, and two remotes
A screenshot shows a teacher’s feedback screen. There are six sections or partial sections
Blackfeet chiefs
René Descartes: substance incorporeal
An engraving shows a three-story house with a barn-like roof
A page from On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties
Gestalt psychology
A simple Y-maze
Two line graphs
Figure 1.1 The Subfields of Psychology
Three photos of professional psychologists
Painting of Galileo Galilei
Figure 2.1 Measurement
Two photos show winning athletes in competition
Avoiding demand characteristics
Figure 2.2 Frequency Distributions
Figure 2.3 Two Kinds of Descriptive Statistics
Figure 2.4 Calculating Descriptive Statistics
Figure 2.5 Differently Shaped Distributions
Figure 2.6 Distributions Can Differ in Variability or Central Tendency
Figure 2.7 Graphing Correlations
Figure 2.8 Positive Correlations of Different Strengths
Figure 2.9 Causes of Correlation
Figure 2.10 The Three Steps of Experimentation
Figure 2.11 Random Assignment
Hate crimes and hate posts
Headlines and psychology
The second rule of critical thinking
Figure 2.12 Hours Spent Partying or Studying at Some Canadian Universities
Figure 3.2 Components of a Neuron
Figure 3.3 Neurons Specialized by Location
Figure 3.4 The Resting and Action Potentials
Figure 3.6 Synaptic Transmission
Figure 3.7 The Actions of Agonist and Antagonist Drugs
Figure 3.8 The Human Nervous System
Figure 3.9 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems
Figure 3.10 The Pain Withdrawal Reflex
Figure 3.11 Regions of the Spinal Cord
Neural representation of attempted handwriting
Figure 3.12 Structure of the Brain
Figure 3.13 Major Glands of the Endocrine System
Figure 3.14 Cerebral Cortex and Lobes
Figure 3.16 Somatosensory and Motor Cortices
Figure 3.17 Mapping Sensations in Phantom
Figure 3.18 Genes and Epigenetics
Monozygotic and dizygotic twins
Figure 3.20 Split-Brain Experiment
Figure 3.21 Chimeric Faces and the Split Brain
Cartoon from off the mark dot com
Figure 4.1 Absolute Threshold
Figure 4.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Figure 4.3 The Eye Transduces Light Waves into Neural Activity
Figure 4.5 Seeing in Colour
Figure 4.6 Colour Mixing
Figure 4.8 Single-Neuron Feature Detectors
Figure 4.9 Visual Streams
Figure 4.10 Testing Visual Form Agnosia
Figure 4.11 Illusory Conjunctions
Figure 4.12 Perceptual Grouping Rules
Figure 4.15 Familiar Size
Figure 4.16 Pictorial Depth Cues
Figure 4.17 Binocular Disparity
Figure 4.18 The Amazing Ames Room
Figure 4.19 Areas of the Brain That Play a Role in Perceiving the Motion of Objects
Figure 4.20 Change Blindness
Figure 4.21 Anatomy of the Human Ear
Figure 4.22 Auditory Transduction
Figure 4.23 Primary Auditory Cortex
Language performance
Figure 4.24 Touch Receptors
Figure 4.25 Pain Travels Along Two Pathways
Figure 4.26 Anatomy of Smell
Figure 4.27 A Taste Bud
Figure 5.1 Dimensions of Mind Perception
Figure 5.3 The Timing of Conscious Will
Figure 5.5 Mirrors Increase Honesty
Two brain scans
Figure 5.6 Situations and Activities Associated with Boredom
Figure 5.8 Rebound Effect
Figure 5.9 EEG Patterns During the Stages of Sleep
Figure 5.10 Stages of Sleep During the Night
Figure 5.11 Average Daily Sleep Totals
Insomnia Jeopardy
Figure 5.12 Brain Activation and Deactivation During REM Sleep
Frequency of dreaming experience
Figure 5.13 Drug Addiction Often Occurs as the Motivation to Use Drugs Shifts from Positive to Negative Reinforcement
Prohibition activity in Canada
Opioid epidemic
Figure 5.14 Hypnotic Analgesia
Figure 6.1 Digit Memory Test. How many digits can you remember?
Figure 6.2 Brain Activity During Different Types of Judgements
Figure 6.3 Organizing Words Into a Hierarchy
Figure 6.4 Encoding of Survival-Related Information Enhances Later Recall
Figure 6.6 The Flow of Information Through the Memory System
Figure 6.7 The Decline of Short-Term Memory
Figure 6.8 A Refined Model of Working Memory
Figure 6.10 Memory Testing Benefits Long-Term Retention
Figure 6.11 PET Scans of Successful and Unsuccessful Recall
Figure 6.12 Forms of Long-Term Memory
Figure 6.14 Primed and Unprimed Processing of Stimuli
Figure 6.15 Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future Depend on a Common Core Network of Brain Regions
Figure 6.16 The Curve of Forgetting
Parent actively engaging their children
Figure 7.1 Pavlov’s Apparatus for Studying Classical Conditioning
Figure 7.2 The Elements of Classical Conditioning
Figure 7.3 Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery
Figure 7.4 Expectation in Classical Conditioning
Figure 7.5 Thorndike’s Puzzle Box
Figure 7.6 The Law of Effect
Figure 7.8 Delay of Reinforcement
Figure 7.9 Reinforcement Schedules
B F Skinner experimenting with his dog
Figure 7.10 Latent Learning
Figure 7.11 Cognitive Maps
Figure 7.12 Pleasure Centres in the Brain
Figure 7.14 A Complex T Maze
Figure 7.15 Beating Up Bobo
Figure 7.16 Observational Learning
Figure 7.18 Artificial Grammar and Implicit Learning
Figure 7.19 Implicit and Explicit Learning Activate Different Brain Areas
String of letters
Figure 7.20 Practice Testing Improved Performance on an End-of-Semester Exam
Figure 8.1 From Distances to Maps
Figure 8.2 Two Dimensions of Emotion
Figure 8.3 Classic Theories of Emotion
Figure 8.4 The Fast and Slow Pathways of Fear
Figure 8.5 Facial Expressions of Emotion
Figure 8.6 The Faces of Pain and Pleasure
Diversity of cultures
Cultural diversity graph
Figure 8.10 Labelling Affect with 140 Characters
Figure 8.14 The Geography of Obesity
Figure 8.15 The Human Sexual Response Cycle
Figure 8.16 When Threats Backfire
A bar graph shows the proportion of customers using reusable bags under different scenarios
Figure 8.18 When Do We Take Risks?
Figure 9.1 Units of Language
Figure 9.2 Syntactic Rules
Figure 9.4 Bilingualism Alters Brain Structure
Figure 9.6 Critical Features of a Category
Figure 9.7 Prototype Theory and Exemplar
Figure 9.8 Brain Areas Involved in Category-Specific Processing
Waiting in queue
Figure 9.9 Availability Heuristic
Figure 9.10 The Conjunction Fallacy
Optimism bias
Figure 9.11 The Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making
Risk assessment study
Figure 9.12 Analogical Problem Solving
Figure 9.13 Genius and Insight
Figure 9.14 Insightful Solutions Are Really Incremental
Figure 9.16 Functional Fixedness and the String Problem
Figure 9.19 The Solution to the String Problem
Figure 9.20 Two Solutions to the Nine-Dot Problem
Figure 10.1 Income and Intelligence Among Siblings
A scatter plot
Figure 10.2 A Three-Level Hierarchy
Figure 10.3 Patterns of Correlation Can Reveal Middle-Level Abilities
Figure 10.4 Measuring Fluid Intelligence
Items from a test of emotional intelligence
Two manipulated photos show the face of a young woman blended with that of her parents separately. They show a striking resemblance
Figure 10.5 Questions With and Without Answers
Figure 10.6 Age and Heritability of Intelligence
Figure 10.7 Intelligence Changes Over Time
A scatter plot and a line graph
Figure 10.8 The Flynn Effect
Figure 10.10 Can Education Hurt?
A line graph
Figure 10.11 The Normal Curve of Intelligence Deviation
Figure 11.1 Developmental Timeline — Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal Stages
Figure 11.2 Worldwide Prevalence of Newborns Suffering From Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Figure 11.3 Infants Attend to Social Stimuli
Figure 11.4 Motor Development
Figure 11.3 Developmental Timeline – Infancy and Childhood
Figure 11.8 The Impossible Event
Figure 11.10 Joint Attention
A flow chart shows the attachment types of an infant to primary caregivers
Figure 11.12 Internal Working Models
Figure 11.13 Developmental Timeline — Infancy and Childhood with Kohlberg’s Stages
Two photos show screenshots of a girl video chatting with her mother and of her crashed car
Figure 11.14 How Do Peers Affect Decision Making?
Figure 11.15 Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Vary Dramatically Around the World
Figure 11.16 Teenagers Are Having Less Sex
A matrix shows a binary model of human sexuality based on sex, gender, and sexual orientation. The sexes Male and Female are further categorized into two genders each as Man and Woman. Sexual orientation is classified as towards Males, Females, and Males and Females
Figure 11.17 Age-Related Changes in Cognitive Performance
Figure 11.18 Bilateral Asymmetry in Younger and Older Brains
Figure 11.19 Friends but Not Family Become Less Important as We Age
Figure 11.20 In Canada, the percentage of stay-at-home parents who are fathers has increased dramatically over the last 40 years
A line graph shows amount of money required to wait versus age
A tree diagram shows the hierarchical structure of traits
Two photos show a sister and a brother
A painting shows deity Ardhanarishwara sitting cross-legged on a cheetah skin under a tree. The deity is half male and half female
A screenshot of nock.matthew’s Instagram feed displays a photo of Matthew Nock with a young boy and a girl near a lake. The girl holds a fishing rod
A graph shows the flow experience
Three self-portraits
Figure 12.5 Self-Concept in the Brain
A cartoon and two photos
Figure 13.1 Heat and Aggression
Figure 13.2 I Spy Threat
A 2 by 2 matrix shows the prisoner’s dilemma game
Figure 13.4 Mob Size and Level of Atrocity
Figure 13.5 Organ Donation and Altruism
Percentage of people who attempted to contact a lost wallet’s owner
Regions of Italy and percentages of lost letters returned per region
Figure 13.6 It Pays to be Beautiful
Standards of beauty across cultures
Figure 13.8 Big Brain Baby
Figure 13.9 Passionate and Companionate Love
Figure 13.10 Stereotype Content
Figure 13.11 Seeing Correlations That Aren’t Really There
Figure 13.12 Categorization Reduces Perceived Variability
Figure 13.14 Experience of Discrimination by Population Group or Indigenous Identity
Figure 13.15 Stereotype Reduction Contest
Figure 13.16 Three Attributional Questions
Social media profile of Huda Kattan
Figure 13.17 The Perils of Connection
Peripheral-route persuasion
Figure 13.20 Two Types of Persuasion
Figure 14.1 HPA Axis
Figure 14.2 Selye’s Three Phases of Stress
Figure 14.3 Hostility and Coronary Heart Disease
Stress, Health, and Money
A bar graph shows the percentage of patients with complications who fall under three different groups based on three different prayer conditions
Figure 14.5 The Brain in Pain
Figure 14.6 Antacid Intake
Three musicians
A clustered bar graph shows the percentage of lifetime prevalence, by disorder type, in five selected countries
Figure 15.2 Proposed Models of How Disorders Develop
A double bar graph presents M R I hippocampal volumes in millilitres for veterans with P T S D and without P T S D
Two photos placed side by side show different seasons
Figure 15.4 The Brain and Depression
Figure 15.5 Average Risk of Developing Schizophrenia
Figure 15.7 Brain Tissue Loss in Adolescent Schizophrenia
Figure 15.8 Age of Onset of Suicidal Behaviour During Adolescence
Figure 16.1 Approaches to Psychotherapy in the 21st Century
Smartphone-based interventions
Figure 16.2 Antidepressant Use
A cartoon presents the effect of drugs in an experiment
A diagram shows presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons separated by a synaptic gap
Figure 16.4 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression
Figure 16.5 The Effectiveness of Medication and Psychotherapy for Panic Disorder
Figure 16.6 The Effects of Medication and Therapy in the Brain
A scatter plot shows observed A D M change, observed placebo change, estimated A D M change, and estimated placebo change in H R D S score from intake
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