Handbook of Adolescent Digital Media Use and Mental Health

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Digital media, including social media, has fundamentally changed how the human species communicates with, relates to, and influences one another. Adolescents use digital media extensively. Researchers, scholars, teachers, parents, and teens themselves have many questions about the effects of digital media on young people's psychological development. This handbook offers a comprehensive synthesis of scientific studies that explain what we know so far about digital media and its effects on youth mental health. With chapters from internationally renowned experts in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, media, and communications, the book offers a broad overview of the positive and negative implications of youths' engagement with digital media for brain development, relationships, identity exploration, daily behaviors, and psychological symptoms. Chapters include a discussion of the current state of knowledge, directions for future research, and practical suggestions for parents, educators, and teens themselves. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

Author(s): Jacqueline Nesi, Eva H. Telzer, Mitchell J. Prinstein
Edition: 1
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Year: 2022

Language: English
Tags: adolescent digital use, adolescent mental health, mental health, phone use, digital use, digital media, adolescent psychology

Title page
Copyright information
List of Figures
List of Tables
About the Editors
List of Contributors
Digital Media: Defining an Evolving Concept
Theoretical Foundations: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective
Research in the Digital Age
Part I Theoretical and Methodological Foundations in Digital Media Research and Adolescent Mental Health
1 Methodological and Conceptual Issues in Digital Media Research
Overview of Definitions and Terminology
Overview of Adolescents' Digital Media Use
History of the Study of Adolescents' Social Media Use
The First Phase: Research on Internet Use and Early Online Communication Contexts
The Second and Third Phase: Research on Digital Communication Tools from Social Networking Sites to Social Media Apps
Methodological Challenges in Adolescent Digital Media Research
Fluid Digital Media Landscape
Measuring Digital Media Use
Finding Equivalent Comparison Groups
Conceptual Considerations for Adolescent Digital Media Research
Consider Digital Media as a Developmental Context
Reimagine Digital Media Usage
Consider a Variety of Mechanisms and User Variables as Mediators and Moderators
2 Theoretical Foundations of Social Media Uses and Effects
Media Effects Theories
The Selectivity Paradigm
The Transactionality Paradigm
Dispositional Factors
Developmental Factors
Social Context Factors
The Conditionality Paradigm
Dispositional Susceptibility
Developmental Susceptibility
Social-Context Susceptibility
Social Media as a Social Context in Its Own Right
Computer-Mediated Communication Theories
A Transactional Affordance Theory of Social Media Uses
Social Media Users Shape Their Own Effects
Social Media as a Micro- and Mesosystem
It Is the Subjective Experience That Counts
Cue Manageability
Conclusions and Avenues for Future Research
Part II Digital Media in the Adolescent Developmental Context
3 Digital Media and the Dual Aspect of Adolescent Identity Development: The Effects of Digital Media Use on Adolescents' Commitments and Self-Stories
Adolescent Identity Development on Social Media
A Model of Adolescent Identity Development
Chapter Overview
The Subjective Aspect of Identity Development: Changes in Commitments and Values
The Formation of Self-Evaluated Commitments in Adolescence
Identity Exploration and Introspection
Social Media and the Adolescent Development of Commitments and Values
A Playground for Identity Exploration
Potent Social Norms and Values
Inescapable Past Selves
A Tool for Distraction or Introspection?
Emphasis on Appearance
The Objective Aspect of Identity Development: Changes in a Narrative Identity
The Construction of a Coherent Life Story in Adolescence
Dialogue and the Function of Narrative Partners
Social Media and the Adolescent Development of a Narrative Identity
Dialogue with Diverse Groups of People
Narrative Elaboration on Social Media
Attention and Validation on Social Media
Future Research Directions
4 Peer Relationship Processes in the Context of Digital Media
Theoretical Considerations
Transformed Peer Constructs in Digital Communication
Peer Influence in Digital Realms
Social Connectedness and Isolation via Social Media
Popularity and Social Status
Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Peer Relationships in Digital Communication
Future Directions
5 Digital Media and the Developing Brain
Digital Media and the Brain's Control and Attention Networks
Digital Media and the Brain's Reward Circuitry
Digital Media and the Brain's Social Processing Systems
Digital Media Use in the Developing Brain
Studies in Early Life and Childhood
Studies in Adolescents
Age Group Comparisons and Longitudinal Studies of Youth
Conclusions: What We Know Now and Where We May Be Headed
6 Adolescents' Digital Media Interactions within the Context of Sexuality Development
Adolescent Sexuality Development
Digital Media and Adolescents' Sexuality
The Affordances of Sexually Oriented Digital Media
Motivations for Adolescents' Digital Media Uses within the Context of Sexuality
Sexual Exploration
Relationship Initiation and Maintenance
Sexual Coercion
Theoretical Frameworks for Effects of Sexually Oriented Digital Media Use
Digital Media and Its Implications for Adolescents' Sexuality
Sexual Self-Development Outcomes
Sexual Self-Concept
Sexual Agency
Sexual Certainty
Sexual Satisfaction
Attitudinal Outcomes
Sexually Permissive Attitudes
Gender Stereotypical Beliefs
Sexual Objectification
Relationship Quality Indicators
Sexual Attraction
Behavioral Outcomes
Sexual Behavior
Risky Sexual Behavior
Sexually Aggressive Behavior
Challenges and Future Directions
7 Culture and Digital Media in Adolescent Development
Cultural Values and Digital Media Use around the World
Latin America/Caribbean
Middle East
Structures of Community: The Nature of Social Ties in Digital Societies
The Mobility Narrative
Alternatives to a Mobility Narrative
The Culturally and Digitally Mediated Self
Is Social Media an Identity Playground?
Is the Selfie Narcissistic?
Challenges and Future Directions in the Study of Culture and Digital Media
Cultural Challenges
Future Directions
8 Marginalized and Understudied Populations Using Digital Media
Role of Digital Media in Development of Marginalized Racial-Ethnic Identities
Risk for Racial-Ethnic Minority Youth
Resilience for Racial-Ethnic Minority Youth
Role of Digital Media in Development of Sexual and Gender Minority Identities
Risk for Sexual/Gender Minority Youth
Resilience for Sexual/Gender Minority Youth
Role of Digital Media in the Development of Other Marginalized Youth Identities
Risk of Other Marginalized Youth
Resilience of Other Marginalized Youth
Challenges and Future Directions
Moving Beyond Differential Access
Hard to Reach and Hidden Subpopulations
Social Media Site Affordances/Hindrances
Part III Digital Media and Adolescent Mental Disorders
9 Depression and Anxiety in the Context of Digital Media
Theories of Depression and Anxiety
State of the Science: Social Media, Depression, and Anxiety
Challenges in Studying Depression and Social Media
Key Hypotheses on the Relationship between Social Media, Depression, and Anxiety
Where Are We Now?
Potentially Problematic Digital Media Behaviors for Depression and Anxiety
Risk 1: Adverse Online Experiences
News Media
Risk 2: Highly Visual Social Media
Fear of Missing Out
Potentially Beneficial Digital Media Behaviors for Depression and Anxiety
Benefits of Social Media for the Typical Adolescent
Benefits of Social Media for Adolescents with Depression and Anxiety
Benefits of Social Media for Marginalized Adolescents
Future Research Directions
Clinical and Intervention Resources
10 The Role of Digital Media in Adolescents' Body Image and Disordered Eating
The Adolescent Developmental Period
Relevant Theoretical Frameworks
Objectification Theory
Social Comparison Theory
Tripartite Influence Model
The Transformation Framework
Social Media Behaviors
Photo Editing
Exposure to Others' Photos
Peer Approval: ''Likes'' and Comments
Subjective Social Media Experiences
Investment in Appearance
Investment in Peer Feedback
Appearance-Related Social Media Consciousness
Social Media Devoted to Body Image Concerns
Weight Loss and Fitness Social Media Content
Social Media Content Encouraging Eating Disorders
Body Positivity Social Media Content
Future Directions, Implications, and Conclusions
11 Digital Media in Adolescent Health Risk and Externalizing Behaviors
State of the Evidence on the Role of Digital Media Use in Externalizing Behaviors
Problem Behavior and Delinquency
Quantity of Digital Media Use and Problem Behavior
Overlap between Online and Offline Delinquency
Online Depictions of Offline Delinquency
Aggression, Bullying, and Violence
Quantity of Digital Media Use and Online and Offline Aggression
Overlap between Online and Offline Aggression
Exposure to Online Violent Content and Offline Aggression
Sexual Risk Taking
Quantity of Digital Media Use and Sexual Risk Taking
Exposure to Online Sexual Content and Offline Sexual Risk Taking
Sexting, Cybersex and Offline Sexual Risk
Substance Misuse
Quantity of Digital Media Use and Substance Use
Alcohol- and Drug-Related Posting and Substance Use Behaviors
Exposure to Others' Alcohol- and Drug-Related Posts and Substance Use Behavior
Shared Vulnerabilities
Peer Selection
Peer Socialization
Deviancy Training
Social Norms
Unique Online Influences?
Digital Media as a Tool in Reducing Externalizing and Health Risk Behavior
Health Information
Delivery of Prevention Messaging
Online Support
Conclusions and Future Directions
12 Problematic Digital Media Use and Addiction
Problematic vs. Normative Digital Media Use
Internet Addiction, Social Media Addiction, and Other Problematic Digital Media Use
Assessing, Preventing, and Treating Problematic Digital Media Use
Assessing Problematic Digital Media Use
Preventing Problematic Social Media Use
Treating Problematic Digital Media Use
Prevention Programs
Treating Problematic Digital Media Use
Clinical Implications
Limitations and Future Research Directions
Measures and Consistency of Terminology
Research Design
Clinical Trials
Sample Demographics and Diversity
13 The Effects of Digital Media and Media Multitasking on Attention Problems and Sleep
Digital Media and Attention Problems: What Do We Know?
Media Multitasking and Attention
Social Media Use and Attention
How Do Social Media and Media Multitasking Affect Attention?
Are There Any Positive Effects of Digital Media on Attention?
Future Research Directions for the Effects of Digital Media on Attention
Digital Media Use and Sleep: What Do We Know?
Why and How Do Digital Media Affect Sleep?
Future Research Directions for Digital Media and Sleep
Individual Responses and Potential Facilitating Effects
Improved Measurement
Overall Conclusion
14 Digital Media, Suicide, and Self-Injury
Chapter Aims
Adolescence and SITB
The Role of Social Media and SITB
Brief Overview of Methods Used to Study the Relationship Between SITB and Social Media
Risks of Social Media for Self-Injury and Suicide
Exposure to Suicide and Self-Injury Content
The Downside of Social Connection on Social Media: Normalization and Narrative Reinforcement
Contagion: Spread and Scale of Social Media Messages
Contagion and Social Media ''Challenges''
Heavy Social Media Use
Benefits of Social Media for Reducing Self-Injury and Suicide
Social Support and Connectedness
Self-Knowledge and Expression
Exchange of Resources and Information
Key Mechanisms: Moderators and Mediators of Effects on SITB
Mental Health History
Affect and Intentions
Interactional Factors
Social Comparison Processes
Opportunities and Challenges
Opportunities: Amplifying the Beneficial Potential of Social Media
Awareness and Stigma Reduction
Challenges: Minimizing the Negative Potential of Social Media
Creating and Maintaining a Safe Environment
Methodological Innovation
Privacy and Ethics
Part IV Intervention and Prevention in the Digital Age
15 School-Based Initiatives Promoting Digital Citizenship and Healthy Digital Media Use
Digital Citizenship and Related Curricula for School-Based Approaches
A Closer Look at School-Based Lessons to Promote Healthy Digital Habits
Critical Awareness of Design Features and Psychological Principles
Self-Reflection about Personal Digital Media Use
Behavioral Change for Healthy Digital Habits
Digital Citizenship Education: State of the Field
Other School-Based Approaches for Supporting Healthy Digital Media Use
16 Digital Media Interventions for Adolescent Mental Health
Barriers to Existing Mental Health Services
Potential Benefits of Digital Mental Health Interventions for Adolescents
Modes of Delivery for Digital Health Interventions
Online/Web-Based Interventions
Text Messaging
Smartphone Apps
Game-Based Interventions
Virtual and Augmented Realities
Social Media
Emerging Digital Tools
Challenges and Future Directions to Digital Mental Health Research and Treatment
Effectiveness of DMHIs: For Whom and in What Contexts?
Gap between Research and Commercial Technology
Privacy and Security
Youth-Centered DMHIs
Scalability of DMHIs
Culturally Sensitive and Equitable DMHIs
Double-Edged Sword of Digital Media