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Download It - Monolithic 3D Inc., the Next Generation 3D-IC ...

MonolithIC 3D Flash vs. Conventional NAND vs. BiCS. MonolithIC. 3D Flash. 4x improvement in density at similar number of litho steps. Manufacturable. ... DRAM production @ 90nm, 60nm, 50nm nodes. Longer channel length low leakage, at same footprint . J. Kim, et al. Samsung, VLSI 2003.

http://www.monolithic3d.com/uploads/6/0/5/5/6055488/3dic_2012_d_sekar_share.pptx

Date added: September 11, 2012 - Views: 34

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Brazil Higher Education Mission

DRAM vs. NAND. DRAM: provides temporary data retention. Volatile (no power no data) Needs refresh (leaky) Short term. Used in computers, servers, cars, cell . phones and many other devices. (Data from slow hard drive is transferred to DRAM for easy access by fast CPU)

http://www.cee.org/tep-lab-bench/ppt/MF1.2012.Talk.pptx

Date added: April 23, 2014 - Views: 5

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Monolithic 3D Provides an Attractive Path to…

2x density improvement vs. NAND, with similar number of litho steps. 1 million cycles, higher performance. Ion-cut vs. other types of stacked Si. ... poly Si 3D doesn’t work for DRAM (unlike NAND flash) due to leakage. Scalability. MonolithIC 3D Inc. Patents Pending. Scalability.

http://www.monolithic3d.com/uploads/6/0/5/5/6055488/monolithic_3d_memory_ebook.pptx

Date added: May 19, 2013 - Views: 3

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Digital Devices - Mississippi State University

... Erase NAND Flash NAND vs NOR Flash NAND vs. NOR Flash NAND denser than NOR because of smaller cell size preferred for data memory storage ... and unlimited writes Could also replace SRAM/DRAM use in embedded systems. MRAM Cell MRAM Cell ...

http://www.ece.msstate.edu/%7Ereese/ece8273/lectures/non_volatile_memory.ppt

Date added: January 16, 2014 - Views: 2

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Micron Technology, Inc. - Little Investment Bankers of ...

Dramatic decline in ASP of DRAM and NAND is continuous – decreased 52% and 56% in 2009, respectively. Due to huge supply surpluses. Further decline in global economic activity. Litigation – Outstanding lawsuits over price fixing.

http://rulibor.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/MU-Bender-Trust-Part-1.pptx

Date added: May 15, 2013 - Views: 2

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CMOS Logic Design with Independent-gate FinFETs

... 48-flit buffer/port Flit width = 128 bits Clock frequency = 1GHz Bulk CMOS vs. LP ... NAND Gates SG-mode NAND IG-mode NAND LP-mode NAND IG ... Gated-diode FinFET embedded DRAMs Extension of CACTI for FinFETs Selection of any of the FinFET SRAM and embedded DRAM cells Use of any ...

http://www.princeton.edu/~carch/carchday2009/jha.ppt

Date added: October 13, 2011 - Views: 272

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Systemarchitektur - TUM

DRAM cell Architecture of a DRAM cell Read destroys information, therefore it has to be written back. Cycle time ... Isolation is damaged by reset. NOR vs NAND NAND more compact since less wires, although more transistors read: offset power for other FETs NOR Single and Multi Level Cells ...

http://www.lrr.in.tum.de/~gerndt/home/Teaching/ComputerArchitecture/Script/LinkedDocuments/DRAM.ppt

Date added: December 11, 2013 - Views: 8

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Introduction to CMOS Logic Circuits - Boston University

... CMOS NAND Several devices in series each with effective channel length Leff can be viewed as a single device of channel length equal to the combined channel lengths of the separate series devices e.g. 3 input NAND: ... especially pulsed DOMINO and NORA logic as well as in DRAM operation.

http://people.bu.edu/rknepper/sc571/chapter4_b.ppt

Date added: September 21, 2011 - Views: 94

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CMOS Technology Logic Circuit Structures - Boston University

... NAND Gate Version A CMOS SR latch built with two 2-input NAND gates is shown at left The basic memory cell comprised of two back-to-back CMOS inverters ... much like a DRAM sense amplifier When clock is low P1 & P2 precharge while N1 pulls down the N tree logic causing a differential ...

http://people.bu.edu/rknepper/sc571/chapter5_ckts_B.ppt

Date added: October 12, 2011 - Views: 95

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Subsystems 3 - Wayne Wolf

DRAM; Flash. Image sensors. FPGAs. PLAs. ... Static CMOS gate vs. LUT Number of transistors: NAND/NOR gate has 2n transistors. 4-input LUT has 128 transistors in SRAM, 96 in multiplexer. Delay: 4-input NAND gate has 9t delay. SRAM decoding has 21t delay.

http://www.waynewolf.us/modern-vlsi/Overheads/CHAP6-3.ppt

Date added: September 18, 2012 - Views: 9

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This Is the Title of the Presentation

NOR vs. NAND. Serial NOR 512K-1Gb. Parallel NOR 4Mb-2Gb. SLC NAND 128Mb-64GB. MLC NAND 2GB-128GB. Managed NAND 2GB-64GB. ... The DRAM uses a capacitor as its storage mechanism, hence . dynamic. The capacitor is either charged to a full V DD level (Logic 1) or Ground (Logic 0).

http://www.arroweurope.com/nc/about-arrow/download-center.html?jumpurl=fileadmin%2Fuser_upload%2Fdownload%2FEvent%2520documents%2F2013_10_Freescale_IMX6%2FMicron_3.pptx&juSecure=1&locationData=72%3Att_content%3A3795&juHash=b860696095

Date added: December 14, 2013 - Views: 6

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Revisiting Widely Held SSD Expectations and Rethinking System ...

DRAM Buffer. Faster than HDD. Less overheads. We are carefully using them!! Reads. Writes. Read Cache. Memory Extension. Read-Only Storage. Burst Buffer. Checkpointing. Swap/Hibernation Management. Virtual Memory. Then, why do we need to rethink? NAND Core. Packaging. Architecture. Firmware/OS ...

http://www.utdallas.edu/~jung/uploads/Main/MJ-SIGMETRICS13.ppsx

Date added: March 26, 2014 - Views: 1

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Samsung - Professor Charles C.Wu

NOR is used for data that is rarely modified (e.g. bios) and NAND is rest (vast majority) * - with each generation, technology grew more complex and number of suppliers became more concentrated. ... Dynamic Random Access Memory SRAM ...

http://www.professorwu.com/wiki/images/7/7a/Samsung.ppt

Date added: September 13, 2011 - Views: 66

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PowerPoint Presentation

Digital Logic Test Data Volume DRAM Trends vs. Fcst Speculative beyond DDR3 Cell size remains 6F2 Increased I/O rate in 2007 to support revised DDR4 DDR6 model Density aligned to litho roadmap NAND Trends vs. Fcst Density growth has flattened slightly Litho has caught up 4F2 Cell size (SBC) 3 ...

http://www.itrs.net/Links/2007Summer/Presentations-PPT/09_Test_2007_SF.ppt

Date added: April 24, 2012 - Views: 16

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Lecture1 Introduction - University of California, Berkeley

There is an implementation dependent delay from X to Y. Transistor-level Logic Circuits - NAND Inverter (NOT gate): NAND gate Logic Function ... Row and Column Address together select 1 bit a time DRAM with Column buffer Digital Arithmetic Circuit design for unsigned addition Full ...

http://inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs150/fa04/Lecture/lec27.ppt

Date added: February 26, 2012 - Views: 35

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CSE 477. VLSI Systems Design - University Park, Pennsylvania

... DRAM [Adapted from Rabaey’s Digital Integrated Circuits, Second Edition, ©2003 J. Rabaey, A ... more power (3 WL switch vs. 1 WL in NAND) Essentially a 2**k input multiplexer Can run the NOR decoder while the row decoder and core are working – so only have 1 extra transistor in ...

http://www.cse.psu.edu/~kyusun/class/cmpen411/09s/lec/C411L23MemoryCore.ppt

Date added: February 8, 2013 - Views: 10

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Transistors and Logic Gates - University of Wisconsin–Madison

... Static RAM (SRAM) fast, maintains data without power Dynamic RAM (DRAM) slower but denser ... inputs and current state State Machine Combinational Logic Circuit Storage Elements Inputs Outputs 3-* Combinational vs. Sequential Two types of ... * * * * * * * * NAND and NOR are not ...

http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sohi/cs252/Fall2010/lectures/lec03_digital_logic.ppt

Date added: December 12, 2011 - Views: 50

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PowerPoint プレゼンテーション

Advanced Information Storage 12 Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics 17:00 11/November/2013 Monday (AEW 105) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Quick Review over the Last Lecture Flash memory : NOR-type 1 byte high-speed read-out Low writing speed Difficult to integrate NAND-type High writing ...

http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~ah566/lectures/adv12_dram.pps

Date added: November 11, 2013 - Views: 3

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Flash Memory Technology Direction

NAND Solid State Storage Devices are ready for deployment in many applications. ... System DRAM. PCI E-(optionally on MCH) Cache. Add-in. Card. Build Option 1 . PC Add-in Card- ... each block would have been programmed less than 3 times (vs. the 10,800 cycles when you cycle the same block)

http://download.microsoft.com/download/a/f/d/afdfd50d-6eb9-425e-84e1-b4085a80e34e/SS-S486_WH07.pptx

Date added: October 7, 2011 - Views: 19

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Présentation PowerPoint - I-Micronews

... Major players’ Roadmaps Drivers for TSVs in Flash memory market Stacked SRAM / DRAM ... > 100K t < 100 µm NAND Flash Flash Flash Flash Flash Flash Flash Flash Si Interposer NAND Flash NAND Flash NAND Flash NOR Flash DRAM ASIC Si Interposer 3D SiP “3D Fusion” Era 3 5 3D RF ...

http://www.i-micronews.com/upload/telechargement/EVG_3D_IC_seminarJ.ppt

Date added: June 1, 2013 - Views: 206

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Use of PCM in Computer Systems: an End-to-End Exploration

DRAM scaling is hard (no known solutions at < 20nm) DRAM consumes more power than wanted, even at idle time. ... Lower latency than NAND (~100ns vs. ~100 s) More scalable than NAND (~10nm vs. ~20nm) Much simpler management (e.g., in-place update)

http://people.cs.pitt.edu/~cho/cs2410/current/lect-pcm.pptx

Date added: May 6, 2013 - Views: 5

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Exaflops or Bust - Los Alamos National Laboratory

DRAM – Reduced-memory exascale. Overfetch, leakage, refresh, scrubbing. Giridhar et al, SC 13: 100PB can be achieved at 4.7 MW. ... 3D NAND Flash is BIG. 128Gb chips reported (vs. 4-8 Gb for DRAM). But .. Characteristics. Flash in Exascale Systems.

http://www.lanl.gov/orgs/hpc/salishan/salishan2014/Schreiber.pptx

Date added: June 2, 2014 - Views: 1

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ITRS Update - International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

... DRAM contacted M1: One-year M1 acceleration New for 2012: 4f2 one-year delay to 2014 7) ... 2011-2026 PIDS NAND Flash Multi-Layer 3D Model vs. “Slower” Poly half-pitch Dimensional Reduction Rate affects 3D Bit size & density ...

http://www.itrs.net/links/2012Summer/ORTC.ppt

Date added: December 29, 2012 - Views: 60

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To Avoid Thermal Attack - Pennsylvania State University

Disk Drive vs . Flash Memory MOS ... Addressable Unit NAND Flash Technology Comparison for Different Memory Types Outline Flash Memory Technology NAND vs. NOR Block Mapping Schemes Emulating Disk with Flash ... (by buffering and reordering writes) DRAM Management LRU block replacement Flash ...

http://www.cse.psu.edu/~bhuvan/teaching/spring07/598d/_assoc/600C35B256644FBEB852E5DFA728901D/flash.ppt

Date added: December 11, 2013 - Views: 5

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Transistors and Logic Gates - Computer Science Department The ...

... (NOT Gate) NOR Gate OR Gate NAND Gate (AND ... Four-bit Adder Logical Completeness Can implement ANY truth table with AND, OR, NOT. Combinational vs ... basic kinds of RAM (Random Access Memory) Static RAM (SRAM) fast, maintains data as long as power applied Dynamic RAM (DRAM ...

http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~mitra/csSpring2010/cs320/notes/PattPatelCh03.ppt

Date added: May 17, 2013 - Views: 7

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A Space-Efficient Flash Translation Layer for Compactflash ...

Faster erase and write time NAND vs. NOR NAND Flash Memory Organization of NAND flash memory Small-block flash memory ... The disk that uses the semiconductor as storage DRAM-based Flash-based P-ATA / S-ATA interface FTL NAND flash memory Target markets Enterprise server storage ...

http://altair.snu.ac.kr/newhome/kr/course/system_software/2006/ppt/1115_2_flashmemory_kschoi.ppt

Date added: October 22, 2011 - Views: 28

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Evolution of implementation technologies - EECS Instructional ...

Flip-flops vs. latches revisited ... Simple system design (mostly software development) Memory chips (DRAM, SRAM) Application specific ICs (ASICs ... (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) Transistor-level Logic Circuits Inverter (NOT gate): NAND gate Note : out ...

https://www-inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs150/sp07/Lectures/26-DigitalDesign.ppt

Date added: May 5, 2013 - Views: 7

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Interface Part II

If more than one are present, then all must be 0 in order to perform a read or write. SRAM vs. DRAM SRAMs SRAMs used for caches have access times as low as 10ns . DRAMs SRAMs are ... NAND gate decoders are not often used. Rather the 3-to-8 Line Decoder (74LS138) is more common. 3-to-8 Line ...

http://teacher.en.rmutt.ac.th/ktw/13-104-252/6.1%20basic%20Interface.ppt

Date added: September 17, 2011 - Views: 24

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Transistors and Logic Gates - UNC A

3-* Combinational vs. Sequential Two types of “combination” locks 4 1 8 4 ... perhaps discuss how all gates can be implemented with NAND (or ... (Random Access Memory) Static RAM (SRAM) fast, maintains data as long as power applied Dynamic RAM (DRAM) slower but denser, bit storage ...

http://www.cs.unca.edu/~brock/classes/Spring2009/ece109/Lectures/PattPatelCh03-Spr2009.ppt

Date added: November 12, 2013 - Views: 5

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Lecture 3: R4000 + Intro to ILP - Soda Hall

... (6 transistors/bit vs. 1 transistor Size: DRAM/SRAM ­ 4-8, Cost/Cycle time: SRAM/DRAM ­ 8-16 4/18/2011 cs252-S11, ... NAND: denser, must be read and written in blocks NOR: much less dense, fast to read and write Samsung 2007: ...

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~kubitron/courses/cs252-S11/lectures/lec22-memoryandecc.ppt

Date added: May 3, 2013 - Views: 10

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Lecture 3: R4000 + Intro to ILP - Soda Hall

No refresh (6 transistors/bit vs. 1 transistor. Size: DRAM/SRAM ­ 4-8, Cost/Cycle time: SRAM/DRAM ­ 8-16. Core Memories (1950s & 60s) ... 16GB, NAND Flash. Tunneling Magnetic Junction RAM (TMJ-RAM) Speed of SRAM, density of DRAM, non-volatile (no refresh)

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~kubitron/cs252/lectures/lec22-memoryandecc.pptx

Date added: February 27, 2014 - Views: 3

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Random Access Memory - Anadolu Universitesi - Kisisel Web ...

DRAM Cell DRAM Cell Read DRAM Cell Write DRAM Bit Slice DRAM Including Refresh Logic Dynamic vs. static memory In practice, ... A latch can be made with only two NAND or two NOR gates, but a flip-flop requires at least twice that much hardware. In general, ...

http://home.anadolu.edu.tr/~atdogan/EEM232/14-RAM&ROM.ppt

Date added: July 19, 2012 - Views: 29

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Solid State Storage Deep Dive - SQL Server Input/Output

Some manufacturers off set this with a large DRAM buffer and also may allow you to ... Types Of Flash Structure of NAND PowerPoint Presentation MLC vs. SLC, FIGHT! Reading NAND Flash Writing to NAND PowerPoint Presentation Feeding And Care of NAND Keeping Things Fast No Free Lunches ...

http://sqlserverio.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/solid-state-storage-deep-dive.ppt

Date added: May 3, 2013 - Views: 9

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Introduction and Orientation: The World of Database Management

Sequential VS combinational logic Combinational devices: operate ... (“static”), typically used for the cache DRAM (“dynamic”), typically used for main memory Disk (Elaborate caching / paging algorithms) A Flip-flop can be built from Nand gates But ... real memory units are highly ...

http://www1.idc.ac.il/tecs/lectures/lecture%20about%20chapter%2003.ppt

Date added: May 13, 2013 - Views: 3

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Content Addressable Memories - Sharif

... Unsuitable for READ CAM: Design Techniques Cell Design: NAND vs. NOR Type CAM Low Power Charge-sharing Slow CAM: Design Techniques MLSA ... Introduction TCAM Cell Global Masking SLs Local Masking BLs CAM: Introduction DRAM based TCAM Cell Higher bit density Slower table update ...

http://ee.sharif.edu/~adic/Lecture_17_CAMs_30.ppt

Date added: May 21, 2013 - Views: 3

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Solid-state drive (SSD)

DRAM buffer cache. Read cache + write-ahead log. Capacity. Performance $$$$ $ Other options? ... Read IOPS vs. GB is the key tradeoff. Workload IOPS vs GB. GB Trace volumes 125.00656332800024 ... MLC NAND flash: 390 PB/year, $3.4B.

http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/samehe/eurosys2009.ssd.storage.pptx

Date added: May 5, 2013 - Views: 7

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PowerPoint Presentation: EE5324 Memory Design - Kia Bazargan

Cs / (Cs+CBL) Dynamic RAM 1-Transistor Cell: Observations DRAM memory cell is single-ended Read operation is destructive Unlike 3T cell, ... ROM Cells: Summary Mask programmability Precharged vs. pseudo-nMos NAND cell, NOR cell Area Speed Other types: EEPROM, etc. Outline Registers ...

http://mountains.ece.umn.edu/~kia/Courses/EE5324/05-Mem/EE5324-Mem.ppt

Date added: September 20, 2011 - Views: 42

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Trumping the Multicore Memory Hierarchy with Hi-Spade

* Relative Latencies: 10ns 100ns 1us 10us 100us 1ms 10ms NAND Flash PCM DRAM Hard Disk NAND Flash PCM DRAM Hard Disk Read Write Challenge: ...

http://www.pittsburgh.intel-research.net/people/gibbons/talks-surveys/Multicore-lecture3-PBGibbons.ppt

Date added: December 12, 2013 - Views: 3

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EE414 Lecture Notes (electronic) - Montana State - College of ...

DRAM Operation- we define: ... NAND vs. NOR Flash- “Flash” implies that blocks of memory are erased at a time- this is a specific type of EEprom and is cheaper to fabrication due to less programming circuitryNOR Flash- slower erase and write times- allows access to any address which makes it ...

http://www.coe.montana.edu/ee/lameres/courses/eele414_fall11/lecture_notes/eele414_module_07_storage.pptx

Date added: May 2, 2013 - Views: 6

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PowerPoint Presentation

Dynamic RAM - Bit Slice DRAM VS. ... Assume SL = 4.5, tpd = 0.165 ns Fan-out and Delay - example A 4-input NAND gate is attached to the inputs of the following gates with a given number of standard loads representing their inputs: 4-input NOR gate (0.8 standard load) ...

http://www.pcs.cnu.edu/~gerousis/courses/CPEN315/Final_review.ppt

Date added: August 13, 2013 - Views: 4

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Freescale PowerPoint Template - DAC

... NAND NOR Floating Gate Scaling Limit High Reliability Aspect of NVM End-of Life Bitcell Modeling Knowledge of failure modes Interaction of Bitcell with NVM Design Calibrated Tools Failure Rate Prediction for SoC Zero Defects 1-Transistor vs. Split ... 2006 than DRAM Rugged, secure ...

http://videos.dac.com/43rd/slides/47-3.ppt

Date added: August 13, 2011 - Views: 28

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Advanced SoC Architectures for Embedded Systems

... then read data and re-write it (to the same or other block) Similar to self refresh in DRAM [Source: Micron, 2008] ESA, POSTECH, 2010 Agenda NAND Flash memory Program and reliability Flash ... Intel SSD NOR vs. NAND Summary Area Efficiency NAND Flash Memory Circuit NAND Program ...

http://cal.postech.ac.kr/2010/EECE426/Flash.ppt

Date added: November 1, 2011 - Views: 26

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Chapter 6

... (between disk and DRAM) Flash Types NOR flash: bit cell like a NOR gate Random read/write access Used for instruction memory in embedded systems NAND flash: bit cell like a NAND gate Denser ... and Support I/O vs. CPU Performance Amdahl’s Law Don’t neglect I/O performance as ...

http://www.dsm.fordham.edu/~agw/arch-grad/slides/ch6.ppt

Date added: May 3, 2013 - Views: 6

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Presentation Title - Chabot College

NAND Flash. Microprocessors. DRAM. Computing. Communication. Consumer. Automotive. Industrial/Military. Major Market Segments. Go through this section quickly. The Semiconductor industry has a food chain similar to that of many industries.

http://www.chabotcollege.edu/faculty/bmayer/ChabotEngineeringCourses/ENGR-10_Into_to_Engrng/E10_Guest_Speakers/AlanSchoepp_Chabot%20College%20Intro_ENGR10_Sp14.pptx

Date added: February 25, 2014 - Views: 5

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Transistors and Logic Gates

Inverter (NOT Gate) NOR Gate OR Gate NAND Gate (AND-NOT) AND Gate Basic Logic Gates Fundamental Properties of boolean algebra ... (SRAM) fast, maintains data without power Dynamic RAM (DRAM) slower but denser, bit storage must be periodically refreshed State Machine Another type of ...

http://www.aabu.edu.jo/tool/course_file/lec_notes/902220_Ch03_2011.ppt

Date added: August 1, 2013 - Views: 7

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test

... and the lens focuses the image through a filter on the CCD array. The marketplace Quality measurement: CCD vs ... storage: a type of SRAM, EEPROM chip nonvolatile and does not require constant power to retain information, unlike DRAM ... Flash USB drives Flash USB drive basics NAND ...

http://home.ubalt.edu/abento/315/scanflashcam/scanflashcam.PPT

Date added: September 15, 2011 - Views: 32

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Data Marshaling - Carnegie Mellon University

... 9X FCR lifetime improvement larger than that of stronger ECC 46X vs. 4X with 32 ... P/E cycle overhead * Motivation for Refresh: A Different Way NAND flash endurance can be increased via Stronger ... needs modification Response time impact FCR not as frequent as DRAM ...

http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~omutlu/pub/mutlu_iccd12_talk.ppt

Date added: May 4, 2013 - Views: 9

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Trumping the Multicore Memory Hierarchy with Hi-Spade

DRAM. PCM. NAND Flash. Page sizePage read latency Page write latency. Write bandwidth. Erase latency. 64B20-50ns20-50ns∼GB/s . per dieN/A. 64B∼ 50ns∼ 1 µs50-100 MB/s . per dieN/A. 4KB∼ 25 µs∼ 500 µs5-40 MB/s . per die∼ 2 ms.

http://www.pittsburgh.intel-research.net/people/gibbons/talks-surveys/Multicore-lecture3-PBGibbons.pptx

Date added: December 12, 2013 - Views: 3

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Lecture 1: Course Introduction and Overview

... Price vs. Cost Technology Trends: Microprocessor Capacity Memory Capacity (Single Chip DRAM) Technology Trends (Summary ... due Mon 1/18/99 pick 3 research papers VLSI Transistors CMOS Inverter CMOS NAND Gate Integrated Circuits Costs IC cost = Die cost + Testing cost ...

http://american.cs.ucdavis.edu/academic/ecs201a/fred/l1.ppt

Date added: September 4, 2011 - Views: 87

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Barriers Facing 'Moore's Law' - MIT Lincoln Laboratory

State-of-the-Art CMOS in 2004 ITRS Technology Node: 90 nm (half-pitch of DRAM metal lines ) 4T ... Cost/eSRAM bit: 10 μ¢ (high volume; chip area = 1 cm2) Gate Delay 24 ps * (for 2-input, F.O. = 3 NAND) Switching Energy 0.5 fJ ... ION vs. IOFF tradeoff unfavorable r and L scaling ...

http://www.ll.mit.edu/HPEC/agendas/proc04/powerpoints/Invited/doering.ppt

Date added: November 28, 2011 - Views: 36