Prokaryotic Vs Eukaryotic Transcription PDF
Regulation of Transcription I. Basal vs. activated transcription for mRNA genes A. General transcription factor (TF) vs. promoter-specific 1. general TFsare required by all mRNA genes
2 Transcription: Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic PROK EUK # Polymerases 13 Initiation Promoters Promoters & EhEnhancers # subunits on RNA pol Few (5) Many (12)
-Professor Program Compare & contrast table for prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic transcription and translation. Activity Type. Group or whole class with instructor leading
5 Players in transcription control Core promotor is Prokaryote-like Activators – Bind to distant upstream regions called enhancers – Also bind to co-activator
Handout 7.28 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes: A view from the DNA. (or Why you aren™t a bacterium). Prokaryote Eukaryote General: Site of Transcription Protoplasm Nucleus
– Eukaryotic Transcription – Preinitiation Complex – mRNA Processing • Translation – Machinery – Three stages of translation – Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Translation One Gene One Polypeptide Phenotype Central Dogma • Triplet Code • Codon • Special Codons – Start Codon
1 RNA synthesis in Eukaryotes Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic transcription Prokaryotes: • no membrane-bound nucleus • transcription and translation
Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic • Bacteria = one RNA polymerase • Eukaryotes have three RNA polymerases (I, II, and III) in their nuclei. • RNA polymerase II is used for mRNA
3 Transcription, cont. Transcription, cont. • Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic transcription. DNA in prokaryotic cells codes directly for amino acid sequencing
Prokaryotic DNA replication, transcription, translation Prokaryotic regulation of gene expression Mutations and Selection Extra-chromosomal elements. ... Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells In a prokaryotic cell, which does not contain a nucleus, this
Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic RNA polymerases •Eukaryotic transcription initiation must deal with the packing of DNA into nucleosomes •While bacterial RNA polymerase is able to initiate transcription without the help of additional proteins,
aspects of prokaryotic mRNA structure that are important for ... Recent studies explain how translation of mok/hok is prevented during transcription of the mRNA, ... vesicular stomatitis virus defective in RNA methylation. Virology 138, 1–15. Hovanes, K., ...
Outline • A brief review of the previous lecture •Prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells • Sources of cells for experimental studies • Structural and functional organization of eukaryotic cells
There are two general classes of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The evolution of prokaryotic cells preceded that of eukaryotic cells by 2 billion years.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Chapters 17 and 18 . ... Transcription Initiation in Eukaryotic Cells Step 1: Regulatory transcription factors bind to DNA and recruit the chromatin-remodeling complexes, or HATs.
Eukaryotic Gene Expression • Eukaryotes have larger more complex genome • Eukaryotic DNA must be more highly organized than prokaryotic DNA
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA Replication 437 of individual eukaryotic chromosomes replicate at distinct times during S phase, demonstrating that multiple origins of DNA replication must exist ... Transcription factors in eukaryotic cells can
5 Steps of Eukaryotic Transcription & Post-Transcriptional Processing 5 Steps of Eukaryotic Transcription & Post-Transcriptional Processing Eukaryotic Transcription I
The yeast genome adds some eukaryotic functions onto a prokaryotic model • The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 16 chromosomes and a haploid content of ... • Transcription in eukaryotes requires various regulatory proteins called transcription factors.
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Genomic DNA size of genome? Complexity of genes? Open reading Frames (1 gene per stretch)? Regulatory sequences for Transcription? Density of genes? One gene = 1 transcript? 2 Finding genes in eukaryotic DNA Types of genes include
Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Transcription • In eukaryotes, transcription and translation occur in separate compartments. • In bacteria, mRNA is polycistronic; in eukaryotes, mRNA is usually
Prokaryotic Cell Structure 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structure 1. ... (transcription)* Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER (RER) ... (i.e., ions) inside vs outside the cell are set up & maintained by various membrane proteins: protein pumps
-The main differences between control of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms A) Overview of Eukaryotic Gene Expression 1) The Flow of Genetic Information (gene expression): ... The eukaryotic transcription machinery functions in a chromatin environment 2.
7 Eukaryotic Enhancer Sequences ¥ Enhancers are another cis-acting element. ¥ They are required for maximal transcription of a gene.! Enhancers can be upstream or downstream of the transcription
3 Transcription: Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic PROK EUK # Polymerases 13 Initiation Promoters Promoters & EhEnhancers # subunits on RNA pol Few (5) Many (12)
Distinguishing Features of Eukaryotic (cytosolic) Translation • Transcription and Translation are separated • 5’ Cap for mRNAs (contrast to bacterial mRNAs)
Transcription: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic place Transcription: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic mechanisms structures cap tail Translation: Universal Genetic Code 41 or 42 or 43 codons? 11/12/13! 7! ribosomes tRNAs Where it binds to mRNA more 3D view
Transcription and Translation EK Protein X Used for purification of this protein using Nickel column Enterokinase clevage site ... zOrigin of replication (both eukaryotic and prokaryotic) zPromoter: Simian virus 40 promoter Cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) zPoly A tail
Transcriptional regulation constrains the organization of genes on eukaryotic chromosomes Sarath Chandra Janga*†, Julio Collado-Vides‡, and M. Madan Babu*†
Transcription Addition of cap and tail RNA PROCESSING Translation mRNA protein DNA molecule Translation Polypeptide Gene 1 Gene 2 ... Eukaryotic 80S ribosome Prokaryotic 70S ribosome 5S rRNA 25S rRNA + 34 polypeptides 3S subunit 50S subunit Pro- & Eukaryotic Ribosomes
The fundamental and initiate transcription in vivo. Thus, for prokaryotic units of gene regulation are the three types of specific organisms, the ground state for transcription is nonre- ... Eukaryotic Organisms: The Ground State chromatin structure.
•Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic transcription. DNA in prokaryotic cells codes directly for amino acid sequencing DNA in eukaryotic cells contains regions of bases that do not code for proteins called introns. The sections that do code
2 PROCARYOTIC Vs EUKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION Prokaryotic Transcription – Transcription and Translation are coupled Polycistronic transcripts (Single Transcript – Multiple Peptides)
Transcription Regulation and Gene Expression in Eukaryotes FS 2010 The Basics of Transcription I Methods used to study transcription: in vitro assays
BCH 401G Lecture 44 Eukaryotic gene expression Andres Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes: In eukaryotes, as in prokaryotes, the initiation of transcription is a major
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Genomic DNA ¾size of genome? ¾Complexity of genes? ¾Open reading Frames (1 gene per stretch)? ¾Regulatory sequences for Transcription? ¾Density of genes? ¾One gene = 1 transcript? Finding genes in eukaryotic DNA Types of genes include
4 5. Eukaryotic Gene Transcription a.) Eukaryotic transcription vs. prokaryotic transcription. Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes There are notable differences in transcription between the two. Prokaryotes use a single polymerase for all transcription.
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic gene organization and characterization Whole genome analysis Molecular analysis of RNA expression ... Prokaryotic transcription-polymerases, promoters Prokaryotic transcription -positive and negative regulation
Prokaryotic Replication 4. Eukaryotic Replication 5. Repair of DNA 6. Recombination and Mobile Genetic Elements 7. DNA Methylation and Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion. DNA Replication • DNA double strand -> template for duplication, Replication • Chemically similar to transcription
PHAR 2811 Dale’s lecture 5 page 2 The similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication: • Both are bi-directional processes
polymerase can proceed with transcription as normal. The three enzymes involved in the metabolism of lactose are transcribed and expressed. ... There is much more eukaryotic DNA than prokaryotic DNA. Eukaryotic DNA is organized into many chromosomes and is linear; ...
transcription/translation • contain different proteins, or RNAs • different antibiotic sensitivity vs. non-simultaneous ... correctly distinguishing differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA. In part (c) the minimum
structure and usage of prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Bacterial RNA polymerase 40kD 150kD 160kD 70kD. ... Mutations in regions 2 or 4 tend to severely reduce successful transcription. The core enzyme The main function of the alpha subunits appears to
Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic gene organization Eukaryotic genes are interrupted Polycistronic units are rare in eukaryotes. 21 ... • This allows for a basal level of transcription. Eukaryotic promoters consist of two components: 1: core promoter
• medically useful if specifically inhibit prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic protein synthesis Examples of antibiotic inhibitors ... Activation domains of eukaryotic TFs Eukaryotic transcription regulation - promoter, enhancers and silencers, HMG proteins
•Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Gene Regulation –More kinds of regulatory elements –Enhanceosomes –Combinatorial control ... transcription start site Some are in the intron Wing color Body color Each enhancer controls expression of
Transcription Introduction - Deﬁnitions 1) RNA polymerases: • architecture • catalysis/metal ions • proofreading 2) How to detect DNA protein interactions in vitro: DNA footprinting ... between eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA polymerases
Prokaryotic Transcription In prokaryotes, ... affect both prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription in vitro, the critical steps are different: open complex formation in most genes of prokaryotes vs TBP binding to the TATA element in
directions of replication and transcription Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic DNA convolution (condensation) of eukaryotic DNA (histons, chromatin, histon complex, solenoid, chromosome) function of DNA (information necessary to proteosynthesis - transcription, ability to replication) structure ...